The history of the Indian temple building

Types of stone architecture

There are two types of stone architecture:

Rock climbing. Rock architecture is made by carving natural rock. Usually carved in the direction of mountain ranges, rock structures are made by excavations of rocks until the desired shape is reached.

The stone is built. This section of this guide, Stone Architecture, on the other hand, provides for the assembly of carved stone pieces that create a whole.

Buddhism gets the ball rolling

The first stone architecture in India was carved and executed by Buddhist monks; to these buildings all architecture was wooden. The most striking examples were the rock religious sanctuaries excavated directly from the basalt mountains lining the western edge of the Deccan Plateau, a lofty, v-shaped landmass consisting of much of the Indian Peninsula. The caves at Ajanta – as well as the nearby Beds, Bhaja, Karla, Kondan, Nashik and Pitalhora – were part of this initial wave of excavations.

Inspiration for stone architecture of India

Early Buddhist architecture was most likely indirectly inspired by Egyptian architecture. The Egyptians were probably the first civilizations in the world to build stone architecture; they began with the stone pyramids in the 27th century BC. (Pyramid of Djozer in Shaqka) and continued with stone tombs in the 16th century BC. (Valley of the Kings in Luxor).

At the same time in Mesopotamia (modern Iran and Iraq) similar stone pyramids, called ziggurats, are being rebuilt nearby; the earliest probably date from the late part of the early dynastic period of Sumeria (2900-2350 BC). The design of the ziggurat pyramid has never been transformed from stepped to smooth edges as it was in Egypt.

Egyptian and Mesopotamian forms and building practices were borrowed by the Persians, who adopted rock architecture. In fact, the royal tombs of Darius (522 BC to 486 BC) and the rest of the ancient Persian (Achaemenid) empire were excavated; they are located near the ancient city of Persepolis in modern Iran. Most likely, the first stone architects of India began to build stone architecture in the III-II centuries BC. These architects adapted Persian forms – giving them the benefits of local design stemming from existing wood-based architecture, and introducing entirely new possibilities according to their unique religious practice – to create stone caves with a whole new aesthetic.

Why did Buddhists first build a stone?

It seems that Buddhists simply provided support to rulers and wealthy merchants during the critical period when Persian architectural practices began to seep into the subcontinent. Keep in mind, although the Buddhist faith was founded in India in the 6th century BC, it did not gain widespread recognition until it received imperial sponsorship from the powerful Moorish Emperor Ashoka, who converted to Buddhism and ruled most of the Indian subcontinent from 269 -232 BC Faith gained momentum when the growth of the merchant class was drawn to Buddhism.


Stop in Strasbourg – a city of heritage

As the first city center, which is fully named a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Strasbourg is among the most beautiful and historic destinations in the world, and by its impressive architecture and numerous museums it is not difficult to see why. Near the German border its traditions and culture represent an eclectic blend of French and European heritage, making it an extremely popular destination during European trips and cruises when visitors experience the true meaning of Europe’s medieval heritage.


Partly thanks to this heritage Strasbourg has such a large number of wonderful museums. To gain in-depth knowledge of the intriguing history of Strasbourg, visitors to the city are invited to visit the Historical Museum, which was founded in 1920 to present the political, economic, social and urban environmental history of the city.

Another important institution to visit is the Museum of the Notre Dame era, which is the city’s museum of fine arts in the Haut-Rhin. Some of his artifacts dating back to the early Middle Ages are famous for the large number of original sculptures, glass windows and architectural segments that he depicts. It is also home to the original plans of one of the city’s most famous buildings – Strasbourg Cathedral.

Cult attractions

Strasbourg Cathedral is known to be the tallest medieval building in Europe and was the tallest in the world between 1647 and 1874, and is still considered one of the greatest examples of Gothic architecture. In terms of high interest for both locals and those visiting the capital of the Alsace region, many of the best tours in the region represent this wonderful structure. Strasbourg Cathedral is so tall that it is visible from all over the Rhine in the Black Forest, which creates an atmospheric reception for those who come to the city via the water on European river cruises.

Architecture and parks

While the Strasbourg Cathedral is one of the city’s most famous works of architecture, there are a number of other famous examples in Strasbourg. Along with a number of other medieval churches in the city, the Opera House on the site of Brogil is a fine example of French neoclassicism.

In addition to its architectural architecture, Strasbourg also has a number of famous parks, including the Parc de Orangery, which was converted as an English garden for Josephine de Bojarn, and the Parc de la Citadel, which sits near the remains of a 17th-century fortress.


Architecture and decoration of Christian churches / cathedrals, Jewish synagogues and Islamic mosques

Reflections on religious monuments as well as their devices in connection with their faith and prayer use. This reflection uses examples of the Jewish, Islamic, and Christian religions as examples of medieval times.

Welding Saser, as well as the religion of the profane sacred, the cradle of the sacer, the intertwined reality of faith and the profane. It is in cathedrals, temples, temples, synagogues and mosques that we connect saser and profanus, the house of prayer. Among the variety of religions and customs he brings a collection of sacred sectors, each with its devoted art and architectural composition and its own apparatus for communication, as well as the pious praise. The sectors are indeed built with their grooves and tiles that promote the aesthetic but pious that symbolize their faith.

The nave, which is the main building of the church, provided the central point of the high alternative, which was set aside for the clergy and extended from the entrance to the altar, which was designed from under the apse, which was surrounded by lower side aisles. This architectural design led to the development of the Gothic Christian abbey, Romanesque and cathedral basilica. The church of the Abbey of Saint-Denis is considered to be the first known Gothic structure in which Christians could worship. At that time Hagia Sophia was the Orthodox church of the basilica and later became the imperial mosque. Before St. Sophia became a mosque, it was a church dedicated to God’s wisdom, logo and the second person of the Holy Trinity. This structure since its inception has discovered some changes, from the first church to the second and third churches, to eventually become a mosque, and is now a museum.

The synagogue is the origin of the Hebrew word meaning house of assembly. It is a dwelling for collected prayer and discussion. The five books of Moses are practiced in Judaism, the Torah, and in the Hebrew Bible. They pray in the face of Jerusalem, and the structure of the synagogue focuses on this, as it is the ultimate link between the Saxons and the laymen. In particular, you can see three doorways, such as the Synagogue of Capernaum (4th century BC). These three points of entry can be attributed to the former liturgical divisions of the three ruined courtyards of the Jerusalem Temple. In the religion of Judaism, the god is non-figurative, and yet this notion is false because the district synagogues reflect artistry. For example, in the synagogue of Dura-Eurpus, a well-preserved Roman garrison between the Roman as well as the Sassan imperial, one can find a niche of the Torah. The separation of these designs provides a chandelier with seven branches, the Menorah, a solid emblem of Jewish art. The number seven symbolizes perfection and completion and represents the commandment of the holy holy day, as stated in the Torah. Also visible is the continuous narrative of the chronological storyline on the walls of Moses ’painting (239 AD). The display has two images of Moses, one turning the rod toward the Red Sea, and the other Moses leading the Israelites. The whole notion of a continuous narrative is related to a visual belief about how to show the relationship between God and humanity. Christians worship in churches, while Jews worship in synagogues, as a meeting place of both the sacred and the profane, as well as between the profane and the saser. In the synagogue it is easy to find the western wall, because it usually has niches of the Torah, which guide people in prayer to Jerusalem.

The architecture of the medieval Jewish synagogue differed from place to place, incorporating the aesthetics of the architecture of Christians or Muslim countries where Jews lived. Unlike the Christian church, whose cruciform design symbolizes the crucifixion of Christ, the synagogue lacked an architectural design that would be a symbolic factor.

Within the synagogue, some obligatory architectural elements provided for liturgical purposes. In the center of the synagogue was an elevated platform on which a Torah scroll was read, and was also called Bima among the Ashkenazi Jews, and among the Sephardim was called Teba.

The architectural significance of the beam reflected the significance of the Torah within Jewish rituals. The Torah scrolls were kept in the Holy Ark, meaning the Ark of the Covenant, which was known as Aaron ha-kodesh among the Ashkenazi and Hekhal among the Sephardic Jews. The arrangement of the ark is such that those who stand before it pray towards Jerusalem. Until the sixth century the ark was kept in a side room and outside a field that was separated by a curtain. In the Middle Ages, the Holy Ark was fixed in the center of the east wall of the synagogue, which stood in front of Jerusalem. The scrolls were aligned in a standing position so that parishioners could view them on the open ark. In turn, the ark, which was richly decorated with lions, was a symbol of Judas and tablets of the 10 commandments. Apparently, the veil, called the steamer, covered the Holy Ark according to Scripture (Exodus 40:21). Thus, the aron ha-kodesh symbolizes the Jewish tabernacle that was built when the Israelites wandered in the wilderness. The east wall should have a semicircular apse, and the front door should be through the west wall opposite the apse.

The prehistoric priestly duty to light a candle to burn forever before the Lord (cf. Lev. 24: 4) was also transferred to the eternal light that hung before the ark and burned all the time. The light of the eternal chandeliers was made of silver, brass or gold, depending on the wealth of the communities, and symbolized the spirituality of the Torah enlightenment. In addition, the synagogue had another desirable feature – a window. Maintaining faith in Daniel 6:11, the place of prayer of the prophets had a window. During prayers in the synagogue, the conscript is used to cover the Torah ark, inside which is the Torah scroll. In several synagogues paraffit is used throughout the year and is replaced on major holy days.

The Dome of the Rock, a shrine located on a temple hill in the old city of Jerusalem, is considered one of the oldest Islamic architectural works, the significance of which comes from religious traditions that are of great importance to both Jews and Christians and Muslims. Christians view the location of the dome as sacred because of the role of the temple in the life of Jesus Christ.

You can use a mihrab to focus on Mecca for prayers. The mihrab seems to have been a newer version of the Torah niche and apse. Due to the requirement to immediately disconnect the person from the profane space around them, the need for prayer was created. Similarly, the Torah scrolls of the medieval Ashkenazi world are read in beams or on an elevated platform located in the center. All seats stand in front of the Holy Ark (aron). In addition, Aaron is one of the many successors to the Torah niche where scrolls are kept.

In conclusion, the art and architecture of medieval Jews, Christians and Muslims were consistently determined by the requirements and dogmas of the respective religious beliefs. To varying degrees, Christians, Muslims, and Jewish artists and architects have inherited the artistic, aesthetic, and architectural heritage they received from ancient Roman, Hellenistic, Persian, and other cultures. In addition, the direct cultural contacts of Jews, Muslims and Christians were expressed in various ways in their material cultural productions. People in the Middle Ages eagerly imitated and also adapted artistic techniques to each other to create their own. It was not surprising for Muslims and Christian monarchs that artists from different religious communities worked for them. All three communities used religious art symbols in art as well as in architecture for polemical reasons.