Chhattisgarh is the passion of the escapist

Chatisgarh, a country of waterfalls, forests and rich cultural heritage, has many gifts for travelers. Far from the hustle and bustle that is destroying the monotonous lifestyle of modern man, it offers much more than the wildest expectations of an escapist. Chatisgarh remains a mystery awaiting exploration, and entices the traveler with its natural charm and biodiversity.

established in 2000, this state was cut from Madhya Pradesh. There are a total of sixteen districts, many of which were former princely states. Three national parks and eleven wildlife sanctuaries scatter the state, which in itself speaks volumes about the vast forest cover. This state has been blessed with rivers and waterfalls. Mahanadi, Indravati, Shivnat, Hansdea, Arpa, Pairi, Harun, Maniari Jonk, Shabri, Dunkini-Shankini, Mand, Tandula, Ib and Kotri. important rivers. The main waterfalls are Chitrakote, Tyratgarh, Kanger, Gupteshwar, Malaykundam, Saat Dara, Ranida, Rajpuri, Kendai, Tata-Pani, Damera Tamda-Humar, Mendri-Humar. Chitrakote Falls is a fascinating spectacle that compares it to Niagra’s horseshoe-shaped falls. Wildlife includes tigers, leopards, wild boars, langurs, rhesus monkeys, etc. Rice, sugar cane, legumes, bananas and wheat are the main crops.

Hatsisgarh, although only seven years old, is an ancient land, which in ancient texts, inscriptions and in the travels of foreign travelers is called Dakshin Kosala. It has a significant tribal population (32.5%) compared to 7.8% in the rest of India. Extremely rich in natural resources, Chatisgarh boasts of having 12% of India’s forests. The Vindhyachal mountain ranges dominate the state. Spectacular waterfalls add wild colorful beauty, and together with hills – a holiday for eyes. In addition, there are a number of ancient caves containing strange formations of stalactites and stalagmites that needed to grow.

The languages ​​spoken are Hindi and local dialects. There are also a number of festivals such as Polo, Navajo, Dusehra, Deepavali, Holi, Howardhan Puja that are celebrated fun and festively. The main mode of transport is road, which is extremely well maintained. The distance of 400 km can be easily covered in less than 6 hours. The main religions are Hinduism, Islam, Christianity and tribal.

Places to visit


Bastar is one of the largest areas of India, which has a predominantly tribal population and remains a mystery to many travelers. This place is a powerful combination of antiquity and modernity with lots of natural beauty and cultural diversity. More than 60% of the land is under forest cover, which largely indicates the importance of the tribal population. The government’s policy is to develop this sensitive area through sustainable tourism.

An area of ​​maiden forest, diverse flora and fauna, ancient caves, waterfalls and rivers in the Kanger Valley – a place for botanists, adventurers and artists dream. Danteshwari, the guardian deity of the royal house of Bastar, is said to have brought the fleeing king to safety from invaders on these forest hills.

Tribal people make up nearly three-quarters of Bastar’s population, each with their own culture of spirits, deities, dialects, customs and eating habits. One notable aspect of this indigenous population is how they transfer themselves, whether to a local home (weekly market) or for other purposes. I am sure that men and women, balancing huge loads, walk in one file with baskets on their heads and children on their hips. The farmer Muria from North Bastar is more settled and best known for his goth. This is a special place for young unmarried boys and girls who meet farther from adults, where they pursue their own unique system of social education, which also includes music, dances, stories, etc.

Bastar is also famous for simple and complex crafts, which are a wonderful combination of antique and modern. The taste of Bastar’s craft in the Harapan and Indus Valley increases their appeal among connoisseurs. Kandagaon, Narayanpur and Jagdalpur are famous for their terracotta products such as elephants with bells and a selection of decorative pots and countertops. Jagdalpur is also known for weaving silk braid.

Products made of bells and wrought iron are part of the artwork of Kandahaon and Jagdalpur. Some of the best works of bustard crafts are on display in many five-star hotel lobbies and city shops in India.

It would be a great omission not to mention the waterfalls, rivers, flora and fauna of this region. Wide tracts of rice fields, endless space of untouched forest and a dazzling range of flora, fauna and ancient caves make this place one of the best biodiversity options on our planet.

Trees such as teak, salt, syrsa, tamarind, amla and mahua form a major part of this diverse landscape. The forest is home to a number of endangered species, and the bastard hill of Myna is at the top of the list. This is a unique bird, perhaps the only one that can mimic a human voice to get a real-time effect. Campsites are provided, especially in the camp at Chitrakote Falls, which offers an experience that can be cherished.


Bilaspur is better known for its Kosa silk and its quality. It is the second largest city in the state. The city is about 400 years old, and the name comes from Bhilas, meaning little fish. The town of Bilaspur can be used by the gates of the almost undiscovered northern Chatisgarh.


Sirpur is a small town about 84 km from Raipur, the capital of Chatisgarh. It is well known for its archaeological sites. This city is located on the banks of the Mahanadi River and has a rich heritage of cultural heritage and architecture. In ancient times Sirpur was a well-known center of study and art due to its political stability and religious tolerance.

Laxman Temple in Sirpur

This brick temple is one of the best brick temples in the country. Its original pattern, exquisite carving and precise design with stunning symmetry are unique. In this temple of the panhrata type there is Mandap (Asylum), Antral (Passage) and Garbh Grich (main house). On either side of the entrance are many incarnations of Lord Vishnu, the decorative symbols of Krishna Lila, erogenous images and Vaishnava Dwarpala, which gives the temple a purely historical look. It is believed that the temple was built by Emperor Magad Suryavaman in 650 AD.

Chatisgarh Festivals

Paula Paula

This festival is celebrated in Amavasiya from the month of the Hindu calendar Bhadrapad, which mainly falls in August. As an agricultural state, Polo in Chatsigarh is of particular importance as it celebrates the veneration of oxen during the year they render.


It is celebrated at the Bhadrapad Skula Punchami with a Hindu calender that falls mostly in August. As the name implies, the celebration of the new harvest begins. People wear new clothes, pray in temples and share a variety of recipes made on this day.


Dushara in Chhattisgarh is of particular importance because of the different ways of celebrating it. Although Dusehara is celebrated as the return of Lord Rama to Ayodhya after his victory over Ravana throughout India, in Bastar it is celebrated for other reasons. It is about the importance of Danteshwari Davy in the lives of the people there.

Baramdea Makhatsov

Located 18 km from Kawarda on the Raipur-Jabalpur road, on the banks of the Sankara River, among the hills of Satpur and their picturesque valleys, the temples of Baramdea have a special appeal to lovers of history and archeology. The temples were built by the famous King Ramachandra of the Nag dynasty. These temples are magnificent examples of modern architecture and have sculptures similar to the Khajuraha temples.

How to get there

The capital of Raipur Hatisgarh is connected with other cities of the country by air and rail.

There are two national highways connecting Chatisgarh with the rest of India:

* NH 6, which runs west-east from Nagpur in Maharashtra to Orissa, where it branches off into Kolkata and Bhubaneswar.

* NH43 (one of India’s most well-laid national highways) runs from north to south from Kawarda through Raipur to Jagdalpur and to Orissa and Andhra Pradesh.


Summers can be uncomfortably hot, with temperatures rising above 40 degrees. The monsoon, which runs from mid-June to October, is a great time to visit with rains that provide respite from the heat, and the entire state is engulfed in greenery. This season the waterfalls create spectacular views. Winter, which runs from November to January, is also convenient to visit, with temperatures dropping and the air becoming less humid.

If at all you get the opportunity to visit Chhattisgarh, believe me, it will be a unique experience. So grab it with both hands!


Japan is a country of contrasts and perfection

The world is full of colors, traditions, diverse culture with many shades that combine to evoke an incomprehensible sense of desire to wander! The journey is based on individual interest, which is caused by the desire to explore the unknown and remember the unseen. A trip to Japan is not just full of surprises, but even contradictions.
In a country where the past kindly meets the future, where the ancient coexists with the modern and futuristic, Japan has a wealth of many known and unknown cultural and social traditions that are intriguing and perhaps even alarming (at least for some).
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Your first impression of Japan will be a country that has amazing contrasts and paradoxes. An open mind and a comfortable camera will help you travel through this “Land of the Rising Sun”. The geographical position of Japan on the farthest from the edge of Asia is a huge contribution to the formation of the history not only of Asia but also of its own millennia.
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Because the fusion of cultures is woven into Japan’s existing own fabric, the product is no less amazing and sometimes stunning. Everything from sumo wrestling to samurai warriors, zen temples, favorite hotels, reproductions of the Eiffel Tower to modern shimmering buildings and from traditional kimonos in Japanese women to geisha girls, to zen gardens, to traditional tea ceremonies and vi ceremonies – Japan is a free-flowing river, gurgling on rocks and obstacles at its own pace, at one time these contrasts mean that in Japan you will be bored!
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History and culture

Unusual to feel out of place in a foreign country where people speak a strange language! So somewhere between the graceful politeness of their manners, the occasional noisy exchange of notes over a few drinks, the tall futuristic-looking skyscrapers adjacent to the meager houses of the poor, the cleared shopping arcades with dazzling lights, the beautiful non-religious temples and temples and , deeply rooted in superstition and religion, you are sure to find your own vision of this island.
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According to records, the very first traces of Japanese civilization lead us to the V century, but archaeological evidence is only 500,000 years old. Emperor Jim of the 7th century is known to be the founder of the current monarchical line, and the first Japanese state to be created was Nara, and the empire later spread to Kyoto and Kamakura before the anarchist revolution in the country in the 15th century.
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In 1600, Tokugawa reunited the country and founded the feudal state of Togugawa Shogunate with the capital Edo (modern Tokyo). The feudal ruler introduced a strict caste system and ruled the country with the help of his samurai warriors, preventing any social mobility.
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Then in 1854, American Commodore Matthew Perry arrived in Yokohama with his fleet of Black Ships, forcing the ruler to open his country to trade with the West. The resulting chaos led to the collapse of the shogunate, and in 1867 Japan plunged headlong into the modernization and industrialization of the country and eventually began to expand its territories and colonize its neighbors, which led to the catastrophic World War II.
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Time to visit and what to see

With more than 98% of the population, ethnically Japanese, and known for their impeccable manners, you will always be accepted anywhere. They are very helpful to foreigners and not very comfortable with foreigners and you may find them reserved and unwilling to communicate.
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Spring or March-May is the best season for Japan. That’s when cherry blossoms delight everyone with their beauty and colors. But from April 29 to May 7, which is Golden Week, the Japanese rest, and you can find all the popular tourist destinations that are teeming with domestic tourists. Another great time to visit Japan is fall or September-November; the temperature is mild and the autumn colors are bright and fantastic. Consider the fact that staying during Golden Week, New Year and the O-Bon Summer Festival can be problematic.
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Japan has two main airports – Narita Airport near Tokyo and Kansai Airport near Osaka, although almost all cities have airports. Your trip to Japan more enjoyable is the fact that the country boasts one of the best transportation systems in the world! The Japanese Railway Pass is a great way to see the country.
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Japan consists of the four main islands of Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu; Hokkaido is located in the northeast, Honshu – the largest and includes Tokyo and Osaka-Kyoto. Honshu is also the seventh largest island in the world, Shikoku and Kyushu in the south and southwest.
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As already mentioned, Japan is a wonderful combination of ancient and modern, and the capital Tokyo is the best example. While the city is huge, you should start a tour of the Kabukiza Theater and then move on to the Imperial Palace. The imposing structure, nestled among sprawling lawns, has an impressive moat and an incredibly beautiful Oriental Garden.
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Asakusa-Cannon Temple – the crowd! This Buddhist complex can be reached via a picturesque shopping street, and across the river is the brilliant Edo Tokyo Museum in Riokuku and Sumo National Stadium. Other interesting places in Tokyo are the Tokyo Tower with a beautiful view of the bay and science fiction architecture on the reclaimed island of Rainbow City (O-daiba). The twin towers of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Building face north in a heroic attempt to touch the sky and are now a hallmark of Tokyo’s cityscape.
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In Nika (a two-hour drive north of Tokyo) is an amazing complex of Toshogu shrines, where the founder of the Japanese shokunate Tokugawa is now resting quietly. The coastal city of Kamakura has many historical attractions, as it had the middle feudal power in medieval Japan, including the giant bronze Great Buddha, the vibrant sanctuary of Hatimangu and the picturesque island of Enashima. Not to be overlooked is Mount Fuji – Japan’s highest mountain with a height of 3776 meters, as well as five lakes of Fuji and hot springs. You can also conquer Mount Fuji if you find yourself in Japan in the middle of summer.
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In Japan, there are still many places to visit and capture in your mind! A small country with a big heart and even greater depth of diversity and architecture Japan is truly a land of wonderful dawn!
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Port Stanley Charm

A diverse group of settlers, which erupted in southwestern Ontario by a winding tributary on the shores of Lake Erie in the early 1800s, and created a thriving small community called Port Stanley. This small but bustling harbor was founded in 1804 by John Bostwick, who created and operated the mill and warehouse. Today, this thriving fishing village is rich in charm and history, offering generous hospitality at the resort all year round.
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The drawbridge of King George VI

Port Stanley has some very unique attractions. Most notably, in the heart of the city is the oldest drawbridge in Ontario – the drawbridge of King George VI. The bridge is the essence of elegant simplicity and engineering splendor.
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It is known as the Basque Bridge – meaning that it is so finely balanced that in the event of an emergency it can be raised and lowered manually (1). During the navigation season, a parade of high-mast sailboats, luxury cruisers and commercial vessels takes place under the bridge. The copper plaque on the east tower attracts the attention of tourists, revealing the tragedy of 1937, when 8 out of 13 working men died during construction.
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Port Stanley Railway Station

The road connecting Port Stanley with neighboring cities was built in 1822 to accommodate the sweat of immigrants who landed on the north shore of Lake Erie. In 1844, 148 boats were recorded in the bustling little harbor. Until now, there was a wide railway network in history, which spread across North America, and in 1856 Port Stanley was connected with a new company – London and Port Stanley Railways (L&PS). L&PS prospered and brought to the village about a million vacationers a year. Today, tourists can revisit the past and ride on a real completely rebuilt and repaired L&PS car around 1940. Working as volunteer crews overcame a barrage of obstacles, a group of railroad defenders rescued an abandoned railroad after the 1982 blur. Today, there are more than 400 departures a year, starting in March and running through December with various special trips; including, the Easter Bunny Express, rides on mysterious trains and tours of Santa’s workshops.
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Port Stanley Festival Theater

For those who want to take their experience in Port Stanley to a whole other level, the Port Stanley Festival Theater offers a wide selection of theatrical treats. Canadian performances, which compete with the best theaters in major cities, celebrate the artistry of drama, comedy, musicals and many other events throughout the year. It is located on the main street in the old Town Hall building. The Port Stanley Festival Theater shares a building with a local library and tourist spot, a center of interpretation. The building is also home to many visual artists and craftsmen, as well as a stork club museum. The once-famous Busel Club was a swing dance club that boasted the largest dance floor in the area and attracted several names from major groups in the early 1950s. For almost 50 years, the entertainment magnet flourished until a fire completely destroyed the building. The museum is dedicated to the history of the club “Busel” and demonstrations of memorabilia from big bands.

Exceptional main beach
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Undoubtedly, one of Ontario’s greatest treasures are the beaches of Port Stanley. The main beach is a real star. A fully trained life patrol in the summer months and a treasure trove of activities is available to all – both young and old. This beach has been recognized as the only shoreline of Lake Erie that has received “Blue Flag” status, meaning it meets strict international criteria; including quality, safety and environmental practices. Take a walk along the seemingly endless shores or spend quality time doing recreational activities. In the city and on the beach there is a fitter who can help you enjoy the spacious freedom of cool open water. The municipality has upgraded the east coast of the main beach with a boat descent, two pier piers, a large children’s playground and benches. Countless people have witnessed spectacular sunrises or sunsets in the summer months and often stay to take the starry sky to a clear hot summer night. Whether you’re relaxing under the soothing waves that are applied to the best sandy shores of this pure Blue Flag beach award, or enjoying a competitive game of beach volleyball, you’ll enjoy your time here.

Small beach

In the eastern part of the city is almost completely out of sight “Little Beach”. Well protected shallow water with ample parking and can easily accommodate hundreds of sun seekers. It is best suited for families with young children with shallow water and a large swimming area. There are no lifeguards here other than an ambulance area with several rescue devices for emergencies.

Erie Beach Vacation

Another hidden treasure worth hunting for is “Era Holiday Beach”. This beach is suitable for those who want a little privacy and relaxation. This beach is located a few hundred meters west of the main beach. 250 meters wide and a beautiful sandy beach with a gradual fall into the water. There is a portable bathroom and there are no lifeguards, but the benefit – loneliness.

Accommodation and food immersed in history

Hotels, beds and breakfasts and fully equipped cottages – this is one of the exquisite options for overnight stays in Port Stanley. Imagine the lake wind kissing your cheek out of the room as you permeate the atmosphere of the lively nightlife. First-class service, calm modern atmosphere and peaceful sleep.

On the corner of the bridge and the main street is the Kettle Creek Hotel. It is located on two plots of land, which originally belonged to Colonel John Bostwick, who sold them in 1849 to Justice of the Peace Squire Samuel Price. In 1918, the Price family sold their home to Williamson, who opened Garden Inter. At this time, two frogs were sculpted and placed on the sidewalk in front. The Kettle Creek Inn was founded in 1985 and is now open year-round. Guests can relax on the outdoor patio, which has a delicious selection of delicious menus.

Samuel Shepard’s home is at 324 Smith Street on the southwest corner of William and Smith Streets in Port Stanley. This magnificent house of the century was built in 1854 by Samuel Shepard, who was an insurance agent and trader specializing in grains and products. Samuel Shepard was also the designer of wind tunnels – they were considered the best boats that ever sailed into the harbor. He began a tradition known as the “Shepard Hat,” handing the cylinder to the first captain to arrive in Port Stanley, after the spring breakup. The Shepard House remained in the Shepard family until 1947, today it is a bed and breakfast called Windjammer. It is also a great restaurant where you can dine under a screened veranda or inside where you will find a lot of character. In the village on the farm there are 21 excellent food establishments that will delight your taste buds. Most restaurants have special perch recipes from fresh Lake Erie.


Stroll the streets of Port Stanley and you’ll find a bunch of treasures in lovely family boutiques and antique shops. Showcases, hunting for souvenirs, searching in a chic style or accumulating decor in the house is something for everyone. You will find imported gifts, quality clothing, jewelry, homemade candy and unique art samples.

One of the oldest structures in Port Stanley, Livery, was, among other things, a blacksmith shop, and is now known as the Darbyshire House. It also served the community as a pastry shop, and the village hall as a temporary one. Today it is a shopping store on the main street, where the original panel pine doors and large shop windows are still preserved on the main level.

Another central building is the Russell House on Main Street. Built by John Sweeney, shortly after his arrival in the early 1870s, Russell’s house was built of locally made strawberry bricks. It was one of the first hotels to cater to early travelers who arrived on lakes, railroads and stagecoaches in Port Stanley. For many years it served as a butcher shop, plumbing and offices for doctors, lawyers and insurance agents. It was also a bank, a sterling bank. Several employees lived in rooms on the second floor, including a young banker named Mitchell Hepburn, who later became Ontario’s prime minister. Today it is a retail store.

Other interesting attractions

Colonel John Bostwick donated one hectare of land in 1826 for the erection of a place of worship. In 1845, Port Stanley’s first place of worship, Christ Church, was built using a combination of British classical and American colonial styles. The most outstanding architectural feature is a tower and a spire. Almost ten years after its construction, in 1854, a 400-pound bell was purchased and aligned with what it has today. The church was an important part of religious and social life for the early settlers in the young village. Today, when the church is open, you can go in and view the magnificent memorial stained glass windows and stroll around the grounds. There are tombstones of famous members of the church, the tomb of Colonel John Bostwick and a historical plaque of the province, which tells in detail about his life.

Down South Street, to the south, is another church on the right, St. John’s Presbyterian Church, built in 1852 by the Congregation. This is a great example of pioneering architecture – white classical forms, Gothic and Romanesque windows. In 1854 a Presbyterian community was established, which rented a room in a newly built church. By 1871, they had been able to purchase the building for $ 420. Today, the church continues to worship and provide community services as well as joint ventures with the United Church of Port Stanley across the road. Originally, the United Church of Port Stanley was a Methodist church, erected in 1889 by the Congregation, which existed as early as 1836. Complete with a rectory on the north side and canopies at the back, the front vestibule was completed after the building became United. the church.

There is a very well-preserved one-story white house on the corner of Hattie and Colborn streets, which has largely remained unchanged since its construction in 1840. It is known as the Thomson House. Built in the Greek Renaissance style with cornices and pilasters, this one-story house with white paneling was once the home of Eliza Thomson, who served as librarian. At about the turn of the century, the south extension of her house served as the Port Stanley Library for four decades, and the house was her residence. He later served as Dr. Clinton A. Bell’s office.

Port Stanley was and still is home to a thriving industrial fishing fleet. In 1910, 22 fishing tugs operated from the harbor. An interesting part of the unique architecture is the Cork Furnace, built around 1915 during the heyday of the fishing industry in Port Stanley. Located near the end of the main street and built towards the hill, this design provided natural dry heat for the cork used for swimming fishing nets. To the north, a few steps away, is a large gray building located at 194 Main Street. The East Side Fish Factory once lived here and was built around 1917. The unique design had a series of windows that exposed the eastern, southern and western symmetrical facades. which provided natural heat from the sun. It was used as a place where networks could be repaired and stored.

Colonel John Bostwick’s original residence is also on Main Street. When a catastrophe occurred and his house burned down, Manuel Payne acquired the property and used yellow brick to build an early Victorian-style house on the remaining original foundation in 1873. Architectural lovers can still learn the mix of Gothic Renaissance pediments, Italian stylistic style and style. Manual Payne was a landowner, a railway agent, a telegraph and telephone operator, a customs officer, an express, issued a marriage certificate and the first postmaster in the village.


Kashira holiday packages: what to do or experience in Kashmir

Holiday packages in Kashmir are the most preferred choice among nature lovers, young people, adventure lovers and those seeking spirituality. The state of Jammu and Kashmir is blessed with a beauty that looks surreal due to its size and has been well preserved by the people and the government for many years. Although the state went through hard times, it finally survived without losing the natural treasures of peace of mind. Holiday packages for Kashmir are available in different categories and themes according to different budgets and requirements of travelers.

Kashmir, fenced between the northwestern Himalayan ridges, laurels a few sober ones such as “Shangri-la East”, “Alps of the East”, “Paradise on Earth”, etc., and the place has well preserved its natural riches for decades. Thus, tours of Kashmir are best known for beautiful sunsets on untouched Lake Dahl, rejuvenating nature walks in the lush jungle, adrenaline adventure, love of folk culture, art and architecture and much more. Elements that need to be included in the Kashmir tour itinerary include:

Romantic trip to the chic: Search Google images for the phrase “Kashmir Tours” or “Kashira Travel Packages,” and one of the few images that will unfold ahead will be the picturesque Dahl Lake and the gorgeous Sikar boats floating on it. The image of Kashmir is certainly complete without Chicory, and Kashmir travels without Chikar’s boat trip. These are gorgeous little home boats that sail across the gorgeous Lake Dahl, revealing the experience of the romantic side of the region first hand.

A walk through the magnificent Mughal gardens: The shade of Shiny Plane trees provides a cool retreat in the gardens of Shalimar, Nishant and Chashme Shah in Kashmir. These magnificent gardens are excellent examples of Mughal gardening that existed at that time. The gardens are strategically designed and thus beautifully decorated with Mughal-style pavilions, artificial streams, green manicured landscapes and decorative fountains. A leisurely walk through the gardens turns out to be healing.

The adrenaline rush of adventure sports: Adventure seekers find tourist tours of Kashmir the most exciting as they take several opportunities to enjoy adventure sports. The state, crowned by the mighty hills of the Himalayas, remains magnificent with meadows with several peaks covered with snow, and mighty streams meandering with magnificent landscapes. Such geographical aspects provide ideal conditions for hiking in Gulmarg and Amarnat, skiing in Gulmarg, paragliding in Kashmir and much more.

Spiritual awakening on spiritual sites: The state is also considered one of the main centers of religious activity and spirituality and has several famous sacred shrines spread throughout its periphery. The holy caves of Amarnat and Mount Kailash are considered the holy places of Lord Shiva and thus people of Hindu origin are considered pious. Mata Vaishno Temple is one of the most famous pilgrimage centers, visited by thousands of devotees every year.

The epitome of beauty and tranquility, the region has always been a favorite vacation spot of many people, and still Kashmir holiday packages are chosen by many lovers of nature, adventure, art and architecture.


10 best landscapes of India

For the land that stretches in different climatic zones, India presents different landscapes that are, to put it mildly, awe-inspiring.

From arid dry deserts to glacial mountain peaks, pristine white coasts to lush greenery and rich foliage – India has a variety of scenes associated with different parts of the world. In the Swiss Alps, the Sahara Desert, the waters of the Caribbean and the Amazon rainforest, South Asian cousins ​​are found in various regions of India.

Himalayan ridge

With the majestic Himalayan range of mountains stretching across the states of Himchal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh in northwestern India, to Sikkim in northwestern Arunachal Pradesh. The habitats found in India are known as the Lesser Himalayas, with no less spectacular views of the silent snow-capped peaks. Mount Kanchendzong and Nanda Devi are the two highest peaks in the region of India. Glacial backgrounds with lush meadows and valleys leading to snow-capped peaks, reveal breathtaking scenery, magnificent attractions are not easy to forget.

Factories – Kerala

The world-famous bays of Kerala are nestled between the shores of swaying trees and coastal communities. The refreshing view of the greenery accompanied by birdlife, rich flora and busy locals is intriguing. Gulf cruises, among the weaving waterways, offer the most serene experience among the soothing waters and picturesque river banks. These attractions are in stark contrast to the bustling cities in another region of India and are a coveted relaxation for any traveler who may have been killed by the urban chaos unique to India.

Ganges River

The Ganges River, which stretches for 2,500 km, delights with the life of India and the religious and spiritual artery of the country, as well as stunning attractions along the fertile shores. Coming out of the mouth of a glacier high in the Himalayan mountains, it flows through mountain gorges in Devprayag and the confluence of other holy rivers-sisters – Yamuna and Saraswati – in Allahabad, where the world’s largest religious festival “Kumb Mela” is held. the revered river is sacred to many Hindu devotees. The veneration can be clearly seen in Varanasi, where it is believed to be the holiest site of this river. Washing, cremation and prayers for the living and the dead are a common sight along the river ghats. The alluvial soil along the Indo-Gangetic plains leads to fertile fields of crops – common attractions in rural India, where the river continues to flow to its destination in the Bay of Bengal.

Coast of Konkan – Mumbai, Goa, Mangalore

The coastal landscapes of India are the waves of the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal caressing its long coastline. From the beaches of Goa, which are a longtime favorite for sea tours, the nearby coast offers some of the best views imaginable. The coast of Konkan, starting from Mumbai and leading south to Mangalore, is dotted with sleepy fishing villages, rice fields, plantations and coastal houses sheltered in the western Ghats. In the scenery along this 700 km coastline you can enjoy travel by Konkan Railway or private transport. Exploring the picturesque coast, you need to go to the pristine beaches, which are worthy rivals of the south coast of Goa. Murud, Kashid and Srivardhan are some of the beautiful beaches where you can enjoy along this picturesque coast.

Hills – Uti, Nilgir

Strengthening the Deccan Plateau and tracing the entire western coastal region of India, the Western Ghats are home to more than 1,000 species of flora and fauna. In this magnificent place for nature also live such popular in India mountain stations as Lonvala, Mahabaleshwar in the north and Uti and Nilgir, found in the south of Tamil Nadu, to name a few habitats found in this long stretch of the biosphere. Their cool climate and green valleys, where tribal communities add an enchanting touch to the lush landscape, are popular inclusions in the tour.

Tar Desert – Rajasthan

In the northwestern part of India lies the Tar Desert, which covers the western border of Rajasthan. With scenic Jaisalmer as the nearest airport and fortress city of Bikaner and a remote desert town, Barmer is nearby, the arid sandy landscape of the Tar Desert is easy to reach. There are safaris on camels and jeeps to enjoy the sights of the sand dunes and mud houses of the locals with traditional paintings. In this golden landscape of sand waves the centers of desert crafts as well as picnic areas with lively nightlife give wonderful memories.

Cave temples – Maharashtra, Badami, Mumbai

In a country filled with magnificent temples – ancient and newly built, cave temples are distinguished by beautiful architecture and carvings of the most primitive substances – rock and sandstone. In many parts of India there are many spectacular cave temples. The oldest cave temples in India are the Elora Caves in Maharashtra – more than 30 of them show the religious harmony of ancient times. These caves, the construction of which began in the V century AD. E. And lasted until the 9th century. Dedicated to the three major religions of antiquity – Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. Ajanta Caves, located some distance from the Elora Caves and a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is another fine example of cave temples overlooking a narrow river gorge. With the front of a steep slope in the form of a waterfall, these caves, filled with paintings, are prized for their Buddhist masterpieces of art. The picturesque caves in Badami were built in the early days of Chelukyan. Their elegant architecture and rich carvings are dedicated to Hindu deities, Jain saints and others used as Buddhist monasteries. Other beautiful cave temples located among the beautiful surroundings include the caves of Elephant and Kanheri in the Mumbai region. Joining a tour to visit these primitive sites never wastes time.

National parks and reserves

It seems quite natural that in a country rich in such rich and varied landscapes, there are special facilities that protect and preserve the richness of flora and fauna of nature. The famous Kaziranga National Parks and Corbett National Park are home to marvelous landscapes of raw beauty inhabited by a wealth of wildlife. Savannah meadows, hilly ridges of deciduous forests and life-saving river banks are the dominant features in Corbett National Park in Uttar Pradesh and Lost. Kaziranga National Park in Asamis is characterized by high meadows with areas of evergreen forests and much richer banks of the Brahmaputra River. Even in less rural areas such as Mumbai, Sanjay Gandhi National Park celebrates the rich bird and wildlife in the picturesque forests. The Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary in Kerala is another spectacular river landscape that plays a core role in a diverse ecosystem, including many species of flowers, wildlife and birds that live in deciduous forests, meadows and tropical evergreens. Jaisalmer Desert National Park is another great example of India’s contrasting landscapes.


The many waterfalls found in almost every region of India fascinate all visitors, especially those who deserve the reward of hiking and trekking. Several waterfalls in India are destinations at the end of hiking trails. One of the highest waterfalls in South Asia is the restless Jog Falls, in the state of Karnataka, a breathtaking cluster of towering waterfalls with continuous frothy white streams pounding on the rocky bottom. Falls Abbey, near Madikeri, is another popular tourist attraction. Surrounded by coffee plantations and spices, a nearby bridge is located nearby, this noisy fall is audible in the distance, captivating those in its presence.


In every region of India there are natural and man-made lakes. Improving the picturesque surroundings, they are popular with travelers and locals. These areas surrounding the lakes also provide great places for picnics, while boating is common in the calm water. Lake Dahl in Srinagar is famous for its wooden home boats, one of the main tourist attractions. Lake Pichola in Udaipur is a great backdrop for the famous Lake Poa Palace as its cousin Jai Mahal in Jaipur. Apart from recreation, lakes also have religious significance for devotees. Lake Pushkar, also in Rajasthan, is revered as a sacred place, surrounded by numerous temples and ghats used to cleanse and bathe Hindus. Lake Tulsi, a freshwater lake located in Mumbai in Borivali National Park and serves as a reservoir. The strategic location near the Pawai Kanheri Mountains allows the lake to provide drinking water to part of Mumbai. Lakes in India have many purposes while remaining a scenic part of the surrounding area.


Museum of Royal Barges – shipyard, full of glamor

Gilded curb-decorated barges fill the dimly lit rooms of the former dry dock. Although they are now used sparingly, their grandeur and reality have not diminished. Ships that have transported the kings and queens of Thailand across rivers, canals and water fronts are proud to stand and enjoy all the attention they give them.

Centuries ago, when waterways were the most popular transportation, these magnificent boats were used by the royal family for travel, religious processions, coronation ceremonies, battles and of course casual boat races. The invention of the motor boat has inflicted great injustice on beautiful ships, so they are now used only for religious holidays, especially. “Cat‘ceremony. The ceremony marks the end of the rainy season, and during the time of the Buddha the monks again began their journey to meet the Lord Buddha. This ritual ends by offering the monks alms and new yellow clothes.

Driven by dozens of oarsmen, these barges, which now sit in silence, used to be part of Thailand’s most important functions. Majestic Barge ‘Sufanahong‘, whose nose took the shape of a swan, was reserved for the carriage exclusively of the king and is a favorite among tourists. Anantanagaraj the figurine represents a seven-headed serpent, the god of water according to popular Asian mythology.

In the museum you will find these royal barges and numerous escort barges such as “Asura Wajufak“and”Cool Hearn Het ‘, they are all intricately carved from teak, artistically decorated and adorned with precision. The photo gallery and relics reflect the richness of Thai ceremonies.


How art reflected the philosophy of the ancient Egyptians

Egypt is proud to be the first center of civilization on the African continent since 5000 BC. The country is located along the banks of the Nile in northeastern Africa. Egypt housed one of the most powerful and enduring civilizations in the ancient world. This great ancient state made high use of various arts, revealing their profound philosophies of life. These philosophies were embedded in their strict and compact religious beliefs, chief among which was the belief in life after death. Due to this, people practiced the cult of death, where art was used in the main way.

Egyptian art was made specifically to serve the dead. For the ancient Egyptians, death was not the end, but the transition from the land of the living (physical world) to the land of the dead (spiritual / metaphysical world). The Egyptians believed that if they died, their souls (Ka) would continue to live in another world but in the same bodies. Therefore, to ensure a successful journey to the land of the dead and the afterlife, the deceased had to be physically stored along with earthly possessions and other reminders of daily activities.

To achieve this philosophy, the ancient Egyptians carefully treated their dead bodies, called mummies, and embalmed them to protect them from rot. Works of art were to accompany the deceased into eternity. Thus, Egyptian art is the art of permanence, so Egyptian art is popularly called “the art of eternity.” Thin linen strips were used to wrap the bodies of the dead. Sometimes the resemblances of missing corpses are carved out of imperishable or durable materials such as granite, gold and precious stones to replace them. Wrapping the body of the deceased (mummy) with linen material, it was painted in bright colors and placed in the tomb. These architectural structures, known as pyramids, were built of heavy stones. It helped prolong their lives forever. Egyptian tombs were built in order to ensure the happy afterlife of the deceased, and paintings, sculptures and other objects in them had an eternal purpose.

The interior of these pyramids was lavishly decorated with a series of paintings depicting the journey of the dead into the metaphysical world. Other themes for painting included hunting people and feasting. Funeral texts, which were believed to preserve the name of the deceased and the requests of the gods for his well-being, were also written in hieroglyphs. This graphic art told of the good deeds of the deceased, including his titles and awards received during his lifetime.

Thus, the ideologies of the Egyptians regarding the afterlife, which is part of their philosophy, manifested themselves in works of art – painting, sculpture, architecture and textiles. This should inform today’s scholars about the necessary role art can play in the development of society and sustainable development. Modern scholars should not dissuade art as silent in philosophy because of their picturesque nature. Rather, they should seek to explore how to implement works of art in the transmission of philosophy or deep thought, as illustrated by the basic example of the ancient Egyptians.


Tourism in Rameshwaram – Jotirling of Lord Shiva (Rameshwaram Treasure Study)

Rameshwaram is undoubtedly one of the largest religious centers in southern India for both Shaywi and Vaishnava sects of Hinduism. This is the same place where Lord Rama (incarnation of Vishnu) conveyed gratitude to Lord Shiva for his success in Lanka.

In the heart of Rameshwaram is the famous Romanatwaswami temple, one of India’s most popular temples, representing the true essence of India in the form of a small miniature in which worshipers include everyone from the metropolitan to people dressed in ethnic clothing. distant villages of India.

Location and history: – This revered pilgrimage city is located on an island in the Gulf of Manar and, importantly, is well connected to the mainland in Mandapa by one of the greatest technological wonders of the country – the Indira Gandhi Bridge, which opened in 1988. The charming city was once prosperous ferry point, an important link between India and Sri Lanka, but slowly services were stopped when in Sri Lanka things stopped working.

Tourism in Rameshwaram: –

Ramanathaswamy Temple: – To capture the marvelous charm of this incredible temple city, visit the famous Ramanathaswamy Temple. Entertain yourself with photography in and around the temple, appreciating its exquisite architecture, presenting the best example of the Dravidian style of artistic and cultural development. The temple dates back to the 12th century AD, recognized for its breathtakingly decorated sculptures and corridors with intricate designs and carvings. The temple is only open to Hindus.

Kothandaramaswamy Temple – Dhanushkadi: – Dhanushkadi is another fabulous ancient temple located in the immediate vicinity of the city of Rameshwaram. The temple is named after Lord Rama’s bow – in Hindi known as Danush. The main attraction of the region is its location, surrounded by sea water (Gulf of Bengal and Indian Ocean) on all four sides. If you look at the region from above by helicopter, the sea reflects the shape of a bow and arrow. The head of the arrow is a sacred place for Hindus and is worshiped by pilgrims from afar. The temple celebrates the presence of God Rama and is a must visit for followers of God Rama.

Adam’s Bridge: – Tourism in Tamil Nadu gives you a unique opportunity to see another interesting place in Rameshwaram, known as Adam’s Bridge. reefs, islets and sand mounds


Ancient and modern Delhi

A thousand years of history can be found in Delhi, the capital of India and its third largest city. Located in the north, where the country narrows between Pakistan in the west and China and Tibet in the east, Delhi was the capital of Muslim India from the 12th to the 19th centuries. Historically, it was the center of vital trade routes and occupied a strategic position at the gates to the fertile plain of the Ganges – the social, religious and cultural life of India.

Now there are two cities of Delhi – New and Old. At least eight cities have been recorded at and around this place, the oldest being Indraprostha, which existed from the 3rd to the 4th century BC. There are many legends regarding the founding of the city and some archaeological dates regarding its age. Tomar Rajput founded and fortified the walls of Gilik, the first of the medieval cities, in the 9th century AD. E. And were overthrown in the 12th century by the Kaahas of Jaipur, who built a second defensive wall. The Turkish invaders in 1193 ended the rule of the Hindus and began a new Islamic era of the city. The following cities were annexed to the most ancient. Shah Jahan, the famous creator of the Taj Mahal, was in charge of the seventh Delhi, which he called Shahjahanabad. It was the capital of the Mughals until 1857. As powerful power diminished to replace the power of the British East India Company, Delhi lost its prestige and became another provincial city.

In 1911, the British chose Delhi as the capital, handing over the headquarters of the vice-regal from Calcutta. Plans to build New Delhi south of Shahjahanabad soon began, and Edwin Luthien and Herbert Baker, two British architects, were hired for his project. The center of the plan consisted of the Rashtrapati Bhavan or Vice-Regal Lodge (now the presidential residence), the House of Parliament, the secretariats, the memorial arch and the Connot Circus. The city was designed to combine the European style of the Renaissance and the East to provide a sweet-sounding garden for colonial rulers, but after Independence in 1947 the city began a surge of both horizontal and vertical growth and now includes all old cities, continuing to expand as it grows. population.

Due to its long history, numerous rulers and religions, Delhi is a paradoxical city. Within it are many of the oldest and most revered buildings and monuments in India, illustrating all stages of its development, as well as a bustling modern metropolis with almost six million people.

Red Fort

On the west bank of the Euman River, on the eastern perimeter of the walled city of Delhi, stands the Red Fort. A residence and administrative center, it was built from 1639 to 1648 under the supervision of two architects. It is a formidable war-like structure with octagonal and round bastions and two symmetrical watchtowers that overlook the red sandstone walls that surround the irregular octagon of 3,200 by 1,600 feet and reach 100 feet in height. It is surrounded by a deep moat that flows from the river to the east. Of the original five, only two large gates remain – the Lahore Gate (main entrance) on the west wall and the Delhi Gate on the south.

Inside the Gate of Lahore is an arcade of shops called Chata Chauk, which originally housed the Shah Jahan Court. In addition, there is a House of Drums, or Hatsipol, a parking lot for visitors. The intricate carving on the sandstone is typical of the late Mughal and was originally painted in gold and bright colors. Much of the original structure of the inner fort was destroyed, especially during the Indian Mutiny in 1857, and lawns and gardens are now replacing galleries built inside the walls.

The public audience hall, located between the courtyard and the royal palaces, was the administrative center of the capital, but it was also the predominant exhibition. Much of his luxury needs to be imagined now, but a marble throne with a marble inlay in the classical style still remains. Six miniature palaces stood along the east wall of the fort and contained apartments for the royal house, including the harem. They were connected by the Stream of Paradise, a small canal with fragrant waters, Nahri Bakhisht. Five of the gem-like buildings remained intact. Along the east wall, but secluded behind a sandstone wall, are the royal baths, which overlook the pearl mosque built by Aurangzeb. The outer walls are aligned with the walls of the fort, but the inner walls are at an angle so that they are properly aligned to Mecca.

The life-giving gardens were originally located north of the mosque, were designed to mimic paradise gardens and contained pavilions, fountains and plants in an official manner. Silver swings were hung on silk cords in pavilions so that courtiers could sit and watch the rains during the Hindu festival of the Taj, which marks the onset of the monsoon.


Taj Mahal – “Crowned Palace”

Probably the most recognized structure in the world, as well as one of the most beautiful, graceful lines of the Taj Mahal is one of the many architectural beauties attributed to Shan Jahan, which brought it worldwide recognition.

Built in memory and anchored by his first wife Mumtaz Mahal, the building was started after her death in 1631. An influential and beloved companion and adviser, Mumtaz Mahal has always consulted on public affairs and was in fact the one who put the royal seal on official documents. She died during the birth of their fourteenth child and, unfortunately, she was mourned by her husband, who, being a widower, drastically changed his lifestyle. He handed over much of the responsibility for government functions and military efforts to his sons and devoted his energies to a vital interest in architecture.

From a young age, when he remodeled his apartments in Kabul with great skill and taste, Shah Jahan has always been actively involved in the impressive construction projects of his administration. He designed structures and scenery, made large-scale working layouts and managed the building. The experience prepared him well for what was to be his main achievement – the Taj Mahal. There was much speculation about who might be the architect, and a variety of people were suggested, from a Venetian jeweler to a Turk named Usted Isa Afandi (a former student of Sinan, the most famous Turkish architect) and an Indian from Lahore named Usted Ahmad. However, it is likely that while many architects, artisans and craftsmen contributed to the construction and modification, the concept and management structure was in Shah Jahan. Style is a synthesis of existing features of Mughal architecture. The use of gardens and stone streams is reminiscent of the style common in Kabul used by Babur. Thin minarets and marble inlays are visible on other tombs such as Akbar, while the inflated dome and arched alcoves are Persian in style. The Taj Mahal is considered to be the epitome of Mughal architecture.

Work on the project progressed so well that until 1643 the annual memorial service of Mumtaz-Mahal was held within its walls, although ten more years passed before the completion of the complex. The builders and designers of the Taj Mahal were familiar with the rules of perspective and successfully incorporated many features that enhanced the symmetry and sophistication of the design through optical illusion. Although the height and width of the building are equal, the appearance is towering. Reflections in the water add to this illusion, while rows of cypress and evergreen plants emphasize the perspective.

Built of white marble, the exterior cladding of the main octagonal structure is adorned with a stone-carved verse of the Qur’an. Designed and executed by the Persian Amat Khan Shirazi, the most talented calligrapher of the empire, the decorative works are further enhanced by panels with floral patterns in a realistic style, geometric patterns and graceful arabesques. The base is also white marble measuring 300 feet, and inside are mosaics inserted with semi-precious stones. The central chamber stands above the burial vaults and houses two cenotaphs surrounded by openwork alabaster screens, also decorated with semi-precious stones. The interior during the day is illuminated by diffused light, filtered through a translucent alabaster dome and intricately perforated window screens of the same material.

The terrace surrounds the main structure and is protected at every corner by a thin, gracefully proportioned minaret 133 feet high, which lends balance and sophistication to the massive central building. The rectangular lake in the foreground serves as a reflective surface and increases perspective. The Taj Mahal is reminiscent of exquisite two-dimensional Persian and Mughal miniatures depicting the ethereal palaces of fairy tales, while its size, architectural complexity and scientific accuracy of perspective and symmetry have made it fascinate and delight all who visit it.

Jaipur, “Pink City”

The pink city of Jaipur in Rajasthan was built in 1728 by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singham II. From the beginning it was not pink. It was painted in the traditional greeting color in honor of Prince Albert, the wife of Queen Victoria, who visited in 1883. The city is an eclectic mix of Hindu, Mughal, Persian and Jain styles. It replaced the old amber capital, which was more vulnerable to attacks. It was located on a network of eight squares around the central square, which housed the palace and office buildings. To the north of the central block was Brahmapura (City of God), the home of priests and scholars, which was protected by gardens and lakes. The northwestern quadrant was actually a hill from which Nahargarh, or Fort Tiger, overlooked the city and defended it. From this point of view, the layout of the city is clearly visible. The streets are arranged in perfect proportions, the main thoroughfares are 108 feet wide (Hindu holy number) and are reduced depending on usage. Normalization of the sizes of shops, wide equal sidewalks, houses of equal height (in half of width of the street) give to a city a graceful, elegant look. Deep stone awnings protect the facades of shops from the relentless sun and create a pleasant atmosphere for viewing.

A bustling commercial hub, Jaipur is reminiscent of the ancient Middle East, about people simply from the “Arab Nights”. Many women’s jewelry represents the wealth of the family and can be very huge. This is one of the last strongholds of the practice of sati – the custom of Indian wives engaged in the burial of their husbands. Although it has been illegal since 1829, a recently recorded case was in 1980 and received considerable support from local women.

Fatehpur Sikri, “City of Victory”

For four hundred years, pilgrims, both Hindus and Muslims, visited the tomb of Sheikh Salim Krishti in Fatehpur Sikra. It was built by the Mughal emperor Akbar in honor of the Muslim mystic, who, assuring him of the absence of heirs, is not eternal, promised the emperor not one but three sons. When the first of these sons was born the following year, a large mosque and a new capital were built in Sikr in honor of this event, and when the sheikh died in 1572, a mausoleum was added here.

Akbar’s condition changed for the better, and the following year he managed to conquer the vast kingdom of Gujarat in the west. To commemorate this achievement, he built the largest gate in India 176 feet high to adorn his new Victory City. This city became a central center for the residence of artists, artisans, soldiers and priests – a huge population that directly or indirectly works for the comfort and beauty of the emperor.

During 1584, just fourteen years after the grand opening of the new capital, Akbar left one of his expeditions to the north and never returned to stay. The reason for this refusal is unknown, although theories have been put forward – the lack of water and the ingrained nomadic instincts of the two people, but the mysterious abandoned city keeps its secrets. Failures are collapsing, farm animals graze and peck in the ruins. All signs of human habitation are gone; the numbers do not provide information about the people who lived there, courtiers, five thousand wives and nobles – they all disappeared without a trace.

A thousand elephants and a huge army were here and led them on numerous invasions, often not as bloody as those of the emperor’s ancestors, and the share of the conquered often improved considerably after the conquest. Akbar was an experienced administrator, an innovator and much earlier – his mail system of runners could deliver a letter 78 miles a day. His justice was swift, and the punishment was tailored to the crime. It was believed that torture provided the truth in the evidence, while the executions were carried out only after a few days of trial. The food was sumptuous, the chief could count forty dishes served on Chinese porcelain each day (according to legend, this magnificent dish would break in the presence of poison). The water from the Ganges, sent in closed jars, was the only drink the emperor drank.


Madhya Pradesh, the geographical depth of India, is primarily a country with high plateaus. In a remote corner of this state, far from the broken road, lie the most unusual attractions of the state – the temples of Khajuraho. Stunning examples of Indo-Aryan architecture, these buildings are adorned with beautifully crafted stone carvings, primarily celebrating sexual pleasures. This Kamasutra, carved in stone, commemorates the beauty of the “heavenly girls” of gods and goddesses as well as real and mythological animals.

Built during the Chandala period, the temples date back to a centuries-old surge of creativity that lasted from 950 to 1050 AD. E. It still remains a mystery why these huge structures were built in this isolated place, which, as far as can be determined, was never a settlement and is not a comfortable place to live because of the long, hot and dry season. It is also the subject of intense speculation as to where the workforce came from to implement such a monumental construction project in just a hundred years. One of the advantages of choosing a place appeared a few years later, when due to its remoteness the temple of Khajuraho escaped the destruction of Muslim invaders, seeking to destroy all the “idolatrous” temples in India.

The temples of Khajuraha are built in three groups, with the largest and most important being in the western aviary, which is also the most well-kept. According to a plan that reflects small changes, each temple is approached through an entrance porch, an ardhamandapa, behind which is a hall or mandapa. Next is the main hall of Mahamandapa, surrounded by a corridor supported by pillars. The vestibule, antaraloa, leads to the inner sanctuary of the hunchback, where there is an image of the god-dedication.

The appearance of each building is impressive, as wave after wave of towers culminates in the rise of the sikhara, which reaches the top of the inner sanctuary. The baroque vertical line is offset by the decorated horizontal friezes of the sculpture, which form a carefully integrated element of the whole building.

Most of the temples are lined east-west and made of granite and sandstone. They lack the fenced walls of modern buildings elsewhere, but often had four smaller shrines at the corners, many of which have not survived. One of the best preserved of all the buildings is the Lakshmana temple in the western group. This temple was dedicated to Vishnu and is one of the earliest built on the site (between 930 and 950 AD).


One of the most important places of pilgrimage throughout India, Varanasi, the “Eternal City”, has been a center of learning and civilization for about 2000 years. Nearby, on the banks of the Holy Ganges, the Buddha first preached his message of enlightenment 25 centuries ago. From the 11th century, the city was often looted by Muslim invaders and later also became a center of Muslim worship. The tycoon emperor Aurangzeb destroyed most of the existing temples or turned them into a mosque.

Throughout its history, Varanasi has been called “Kashi” and “Benares”, and the current name translates as “City between two rivers”. Nestled among a poor, backward, agrarian and overcrowded area, it is a brilliant value of teaching and literature for Hindus and Sanskrit and one of the most beloved and auspicious places in all of India where one can go pious. to die. The many ghats that line the banks of the rivers are always crowded with pilgrims bathing in the murky waters of the Ganges in religious purification ceremonies.


The art of wildlife is its history and development


Some of the earliest of all known arts (prehistoric cave and rock art) have wildlife. However, this may be more properly seen as the art of food rather than the art of wildlife as such.

Then for most of the rest of the history of the Western world the art of depicting wildlife was largely absent due to the fact that during this period narrow views of reality, such as religion, predominated in art. More recently, when society and the art it produces are freed from such narrow worldviews, wildlife art thrives.

Wildlife is also a difficult subject for the artist, as it is difficult to find, and even more difficult to find in a still position, long enough to even make a sketch, let alone draw. Recent advances, such as photography, have made it much easier, and have been art forms in their own right. Thus, wildlife art is now much easier to implement both accurately and aesthetically.

In art outside the Western world throughout history wild animals and birds have been depicted much more frequently.

The art of wildlife began as a reflection of vital food sources back in prehistory. At the beginning of history the western world seems to have long been disconnected from nature, and this is reflected in the absence of wildlife art for most of art history. More recently, society and the art it produces have become much broader. Wildlife has become something amazing as new areas of the world have been explored for the first time, something to hunt for fun, aesthetically admire and preserve. These interests are reflected in wildlife art.

History and development of wildlife art …

The art of wildlife in prehistory.

Animal and bird art appears in some of the earliest examples of artistic creation, such as cave painting and rock art.

The earliest known cave paintings were made about 40,000 years ago, the Upper Paleolithic period. These works of art can be more than a decoration of living quarters, as they are often in hard-to-reach caves and show no signs of human habitation. At this time, wildlife was a significant part of people’s daily lives, especially in terms of food hunting, and this is reflected in their art. Religious interpretation of the natural world is also considered an important factor in the reflection of animals and birds at this time.

Probably the most famous of all the cave paintings in Lascaux (France) includes an image of a wild horse, which is one of the earliest examples of wildlife art. Another example of cave painting is the deer in the Spanish cave of Cueva de las Monedas, probably painted around the last ice age. The oldest known cave paintings (perhaps about 32,000 years old) are also found in France, on the Chateau Chateau, and depict horses, rhinos, lions, buffaloes, mammoths and people who often hunt.

Wildlife painting is one of the most common types of cave art. Subjects are often large wildlife, including bison, horses, auros, lions, bears, and deer. People of this time probably treated the natural world mostly in terms of their own survival rather than separating themselves from it.

Cave paintings found in Africa often include animals. The cave paintings of America include animal species such as rabbit, cougar, lynx, deer, wild goat and sheep, whale, turtle, tuna, sardine, octopus, eagle and pelican, and are noted for their high quality and beautiful color. Rock paintings by Australian aborigines include so-called “X-ray” paintings depicting the bones and organs of the animals they depict. Paintings on caves / rocks in Australia include native species of animals, fish and turtles.

The branching of animals was also done during the Upper Paleolithic …, which are the earliest examples of wildlife sculpture.

In Africa, Bushman rock paintings around 8000 BC clearly depict antelopes and other animals.

The advent of the Bronze Age in Europe, beginning in the 3rd millennium BC, led to a specialized class of artisans, thanks to the beginnings of specialization that arose as a result of surpluses in these emerging societies. In the Iron Age, mythical and natural animals were a common item of artwork, often involving decorating items such as plates, knives and cups. Celtic influences influenced the art and architecture of the local Roman colonies and surpassed them, surviving the historical period.

Wildlife art in the ancient world (classical art).

It is believed that history begins at the time of the invention of writing. The earliest examples of ancient art come from Egypt and Mesopotamia.

Great artistic traditions originate in the art of one of the six great ancient “classical” civilizations: Ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Greece, Rome, India, or China. Each of these great civilizations has developed its own unique style of art.

In Chinese art, animals are usually depicted, including some examples from the 4th century that depict stylized mythological creatures and are thus rather a departure from the pure art of wildlife. The Chinese art of the Ming Dynasty has pure wildlife art including ducks, swans, sparrows, tigers and other animals and birds that increase realism and detail.

In the 7th century elephants, monkeys and other animals were depicted on stone carvings in Elora, India. These carvings were religious in nature, but depicted real animals rather than more mythological creatures.

Ancient Egyptian art includes many animals that were used in the symbolic and highly religious nature of Egyptian art at the time, but demonstrate significant anatomical knowledge and attention to detail. Animal symbols are used within the famous Egyptian hieroglyphic language of symbols.

Early South American art often reflects notions of the divine jaguar.

The Minoans, the greatest civilization of the Bronze Age, in their middle period created a naturalistic design including fish, squid and birds. Until the late Minoan period, wildlife was still the most characteristic object of their art, increasing the diversity of species.

The art of the nomadic people of the Mongolian steppes is primarily animal art, such as golden deer and usually small in size, which corresponds to their style of travel.

Aristotle (384-322 BC) proposed the concept of photography, but this was only put into practice in 1826.

Medieval period, from 200 to 1430

This period includes early Christian and Byzantine art, as well as Romanesque and Gothic art (from 1200 to 1430). Much of the art that has survived during this period is religious rather than realistic in nature. Animals in art at this time were used as symbols rather than representations of anything in the real world. Therefore, we can say that during this period there is very little wildlife art as such.

Renaissance Wildlife Art, 1300-1602.

This artistic movement began with ideas that originally appeared in Florence. After centuries of religious domination in art, Renaissance artists began to move more towards ancient mystical themes and reflect the world around them, far from purely Christian themes. New techniques, such as oil painting and portable paintings, as well as new ways of viewing, such as the use of perspective and realistic display of textures and lighting, have led to great changes in artistic expression.

The two main schools of Renaissance art were Italian schools that were heavily influenced by the art of ancient Greece and Rome, as well as northern Europeans … Flemings, Dutch and Germans, who were generally more realistic and less idealized in their work. Renaissance art reflects the revolutions in ideas and science that took place during this period of the Reformation.

In the early Renaissance, artists such as Botticelli and Donatello are represented. At this time, animals are still used symbolically and in a mythological context, such as Jacob de’Barbara’s “Pegasus”.

The most famous artist of the Renaissance is Leonardo da Vinci. Although most of his work depicts humans and technology, he sometimes incorporates wildlife into his images, such as the swan in “Ice and Swans,” and the animals depicted in “The Lady with the Ermine,” “Studies of Cat Movement and Position.”

Dürer is considered the greatest artist of the Northern European Renaissance. Albrecht Dürer was especially known for his wild paintings, including images of a hare, a rhinoceros, a bullfinch, an owl, a squirrel, the wing of a blue roller, a monkey and a blue crow.

The art of Baroque wildlife, from 1600 to 1730.

This important artistic epoch, encouraged by the Roman Catholic Church and the aristocracy of the time, has such famous great artists as Caravaggio, Rembrandt, Rubens, Velazquez, Poussin and Vermeer. The paintings of this period often use light effects to enhance the dramatic effect.

The wildlife of this period includes the lion and the “golden larva” of Karel Fabrito.

Melchior de Hondecoter was a specialist in the art of animals and birds in the Baroque era. The paintings included “Uprising in a Bird Coup”, “Rooster Fight” and “Amsterdam Palace with Exotic Birds”.

The Rococo period was a later (from 1720 to 1780) decadent subgenre of the Baroque period and included such famous painters as Canaletto, Gainsborough, and Goya. The wildlife of the time includes Jean Antoine Watteau’s “Dramatic Study” and Goya’s “Stupidity of the Beasts”.

Jean-Baptiste Udry was a Rococo wildlife conservationist who often painted royalties for royalties.

Around this time, the earliest scientific illustration of wildlife was created, for example, by the artist William Levin, who published a book illustrating British birds, completely hand-drawn.

Wildlife art in the 18th-19th centuries.

In 1743, Mark Catesby published documentation of the flora and fauna of the explored areas of the New World, which helped stimulate both business investment and interest in the continent’s natural history.

In response to the decline of the Rococo period in the late eighteenth century (1750-1830), neoclassicism emerged. This genre is more ascetic and contains much of the sensuality but not the spontaneity that characterizes the late period of Romanticism. This movement focused on the supremacy of the natural order over the will of man, the concept of which culminated in a romantic reflection of catastrophe and madness.

Francois Le Waylan (1769-1832) was a bird illustrator (and ornithologist) around this time.

Georges Cuvier (1769-1832) painted accurate images of over 5,000 fish concerning studies of the comparative biology of the organism.

Edward Hicks is an example of an American wildlife artist of this period, whose art was dominated by his religious context.

At this time Sir Edwin Henry Landser also painted wildlife in a style that strongly influenced the dramatic emotional judgments of the animal participants.

This orientation towards nature forced the painters of the Romantic era (1790 – 1880) to turn landscape painting, which was previously an insignificant form of art, into the most important art. The Romantics rejected the ascetic ideals of neoclassicism.

The practical use of photography began around 1826, although it took some time before wildlife became a common subject of its use. The first color photograph was taken in 1861, but easy-to-use color plates became available only in 1907.

In 1853, Bison and Mant created one of the first known wildlife photographs.

In France, Gaspar-Felix Turnach, “Nadar” (1820-1910), applied the same aesthetic principles used in painting to photography, thus beginning the artistic discipline of fine art photography. Fine art photographs were also reproduced in limited editions, making them more valuable.

Jacques-Laurent Agas was one of the most famous painters in Europe around the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th centuries. His art at the time was unusually realistic, and he painted some wild animals, including giraffes and leopards.

Romantic wildlife art includes “zebra,” “cheetah, deer, and two Indians,” at least two paintings by monkeys, a leopard, and “portrait of the royal tiger” by George Stubbs, who also made many paintings of horses.

One of the great wildlife sculptors of the Romantic period was Antoine-Louis Barry. Barry was also a painter who demonstrated typical dramatic concepts and coverage of the romantic movement.

Delacroix painted a tiger attacking a horse, which, as usual with romantic paintings, depicts objects on the border between man (domesticated horse) and the world of nature (wild tiger).

In America, the landscape painting movement of the Romantic era was known as the Hudson River School (1850s – c. 1880). These landscapes sometimes include wildlife, such as deer in Albert Birstadt’s “Dogwood” and “Yosemite Valley,” and, more obviously, in the “buffalo trail,” but the focus is on the landscape rather than the wildlife in it.

Wildlife artist Ivan Ivanovich Shishkin demonstrates the excellent use of light in his landscape-oriented wildlife art.

Although romantic painting focused on nature, it rarely depicted wild animals that were much more committed to the boundaries between man and nature, such as domesticated animals and people in landscapes rather than the landscapes themselves. Romantic art seems to speak of nature, but usually shows nature only from a human point of view.

Audubon was perhaps the most famous wild bird painter around this time, with a distinctive American style, but painted the birds realistically and in context, albeit in somewhat dramatic poses. Like birds, he also painted American mammals, although these of his works are somewhat lesser known. Around the same time in Europe Rosa Boncher gained fame as a wildlife artist.

Among the realistic art of “raven” Monet and “stags at rest” Rosa Boncher – a real wildlife art. However, in this artistic movement animals are much more often depicted as part of the human context.

The wildlife art of the Impressionist movement includes Theodore Clement Steele’s “Fisherman’s Prize,” and artist Joseph Crowhall was a wildlife art specialist heavily influenced by Impressionism.

At this time, an accurate scientific illustration of wildlife was also created. The name known for this work in Europe is John Gould, although most of the illustrations to his books on birds were made by his wife Elizabeth.

Post-Impressionism (1886 – 1905, France) includes water-bird in Rousseau’s “zealous serpent”, and Rousseau’s paintings, which include wildlife, are sometimes considered post-Impressionists (like the Fauvist, see below).

Fauvism (1904 – 1909, France) was often considered the first “modern” art movement to reinterpret the use of color in art. The most famous favist is Matisse, who depicts birds and fish in “polynesie la Mer” and birds in his “Renaissance”. Other wildlife art in this movement includes a tiger in Rousseau’s “Surprised! A Storm in the Forest,” a lion in a “sleeping gypsy” and jungle animals in his “exotic scenery”. Georges Braque depicts the bird in many of his works of art, including in “L’Oiseaux Bleu et Gris” and in “Astre et l’Oiseau”.

The production of ukiyo-e-printing (Japanese imprints of wooden blocks dating from the 17th century) became known in the West in the 19th century. And had a great influence on Western painters, especially in France.

Wildlife art in this genre includes several untitled prints (owl, bird, eagle) by Ando Hiroshige and Hokusai Katsushiki’s “Crane,” “Cat and Butterfly,” “Wagtail and Wisteria.”

Wildlife art in the 20th century, contemporary art, postmodern art, etc.

Changing from the relatively stable views of the mechanical universe that occurred in the 19th century, the 20th century destroys these views with advances such as Einstein’s psychological impact and Freud’s relatively psychological influence.

To a greater extent, contact with the rest of the world had a significant influence on Western art, such as the influence of African and Japanese art, such as Pablo Picasso.

American wildlife artist Carl Runguis covers the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. His style evolved from a brutally rendered scientific style, through Impressionism, to a more picturesque approach.

Залаты век ілюстрацыі ўключае ў сябе міфічную жывую прыроду “Жар-птушка” Эдмунда Дулака і “Дызайн кафлі Чапля і Рыба” Уолтэра Крэйна.

Птушак Джорджа Брака можна вызначыць як аналітычных кубістаў (гэты жанр быў сумесна распрацаваны Бракам і Пікаса з 1908 па 1912 гг.) (А таксама фавістам). Фернанд Легер таксама паказвае птушак у сваім “Les Oiseaux”.

Прыблізна ў гэты час была зроблена дакладная навуковая ілюстрацыя да дзікай прыроды, напрыклад, зробленая амерыканскім ілюстратарам Луісам Агасісам Фуертам, які маляваў птушак у Амерыцы, а таксама ў іншых краінах.

Экспрэсіянізм (1905 – 1930, Германія). “Фокс”, “малпавы фрыз”, “алень” і “тыгр” і г.д. Франц Марк адносяцца да мастацтва дзікай прыроды, хаця сучасным гледачам здаецца больш стылем, чым жывой прыродзе.

Постмадэрнізм як жанр мастацтва, які развіваўся з 1960-х гадоў, натхняецца на ўвесь спектр гісторыі мастацтва, у адрозненне ад мадэрнізму, які факусуецца на сваім абмежаваным кантэксце. Іншы, але звязаны погляд на гэтыя жанры заключаецца ў тым, што мадэрнізм спрабуе шукаць ідэалізаваную ісціну, калі постмадэрнізм прымае немагчымасць такога ідэалу. Гэта знайшло сваё адлюстраванне, напрыклад, у росце абстрактнага мастацтва, якое з’яўляецца мастацтвам нявызначанага, прыблізна пасля тысячы гадоў мастацтва ў асноўным выяўляе аб’екты, якія можна вызначыць.

Чароўны рэалізм (Германія 1960-х гадоў) часта ўключаў жывёл і птушак, але звычайна ў якасці другарадных элементаў сярод чалавечых элементаў, напрыклад, лебедзі і часам іншыя жывёлы ў многіх карцінах Майкла Паркеса.

У 1963 годзе Рэй Харм – значны мастак па птушках.

“Амерыканскі арол” Роберта Раўшэнберга, пап-арт (з сярэдзіны 1950-х гадоў на наступны момант), выкарыстоўвае вобраз арла як сімвал, а не як нешта сама па сабе, і, такім чынам, гэта не зусім мастацтва дзікай прыроды. Тое ж тычыцца “Матылькоў” любога Уорхала.

Сальвадор Далі, найбольш вядомы з мастакоў-сюррэалістаў (1920-я гады, Францыя і далей), выкарыстоўвае дзікіх жывёл у некаторых сваіх карцінах, напрыклад, “Пейзаж з матылькамі”, але ў кантэксце сюррэалізму выявы дзікай прыроды становяцца канцэптуальна чымсьці іншым, чым тое, што яны можа выглядаць візуальна, таму яны могуць быць зусім не дзікай прыродай. Іншыя прыклады жывой прыроды ў сюррэалістычным мастацтве – “Рэмі Магрыт”, “Прамэсэ” і “Сцэна лентэдра”.

Інфармацыйнае мастацтва (1964 г.), напрыклад, “Неба і вада” М. К. Эшэра, паказвае качак і рыб, а “мазаіка II” паказвае мноства жывёл і птушак, але яны выкарыстоўваюцца як элементы дызайну малюнкаў, а не мастацтва, звязанае з жывёламі.

Роджэр Торы Пітэрсан стварыў вытанчанае мастацтва дзікай прыроды, якое, хаця і ясныя ілюстрацыі да выкарыстання ў сваёй кнізе, якая стала першым сапраўдным палявым кіраўніцтвам па птушках, таксама з’яўляецца эстэтычна птушынай карцінай.

Маладыя брытанскія мастакі (1988 г.). Дэміен Херст выкарыстоўвае акулу ў акварыуме як адно з сваіх твораў. Спрэчна, ці можна разглядаць гэты кавалак жывой прыроды, таму што, хоць акула – гэта ў цэнтры ўвагі твора, гэта не зусім пра саму акулу, але, напэўна, пра ўплыў акулы на людзей, якія яе праглядаюць. Можна сказаць, больш выкарыстанне дзікай прыроды ў / як мастацтва, чым твор мастацтва жывой прыроды.

Мастацтва дзікай прыроды працягвае карыстацца папулярнасцю і сёння, калі мастакі, такія як Роберт Бейтман, вельмі высока цэняцца, хаця ў ягоным выпадку некалькі супярэчлівыя ў сувязі з яго выданнем гравюр з абмежаваным накладам, якія некаторыя крытыкі выяўленчага мастацтва шкадуюць.