The birth of art is the new stone (Neolithic) age

The Neolithic or New Stone Age began in human time technologically and socially, a much more advanced era than previous years. This period marked the dawn of civilization, when people began to choose settlements during their wanderings. The manors of this time included huts made of mud, straw or brick, which together formed permanent villages. The Neolithic era also witnessed the domestication of animals, the emergence of sophisticated tools for fishing and hunting, and the development of agriculture and pottery. Religious, architectural and artistic pursuits have become an integral part of the lifestyle.

Various arts, such as weaving, architecture, megaliths and stylized icons, appeared only during the New Stone Age. The statue, paintings and pottery, taken from the Mesolithic era, underwent significant transformations. In Western Europe, bubbles (large stone blocks) began to be used to demarcate the boundaries between two tribal institutions, arenas of sacrifice, or places of worship. The artistic inclinations of people in the Neolithic era testify to how these menhirs were decorated using a variety of geometric shapes similar to squares, rhombuses and circles, as well as the shapes of zigzag rays carved on the sides.

In the statuettes of the New Stone Age was mainly the “Mother Goddess”, as can be seen from the earliest traces of human figures discovered during archaeological excavations. The pottery used during this period also demonstrates the artistic abilities of the people. These artifacts were adorned with bright colors including red, brown and yellow. The paintings were now visible on the walls of home institutions, which were mainly used for decorative purposes. The earliest landscapes in the world of painting also appeared from the New Stone Age.

Artistic expressions developed in tandem with the demands of the people. For example, architecture has evolved with increasing demand for permanent housing and places of worship. Similarly, wooden products and pottery are designed to meet the needs of furniture and utensils. One of the architectural wonders of the Neolithic era was the use of megaliths, the most famous example of which is England’s Stonehenge. The oldest known megalithic temple is Gqantija on the island of Gozo. Neolithic paintings and other arts have been excellent tools in the study of human evolution because they constitute a crucial link between early man and his environment, the level of development in that era, cultural practices and religious beliefs. In fact the art of this period laid the foundation for all further art forms.

Another interesting characteristic of Neolithic artistry is the discovery of such powerful animals as Bison and Auroch, which people were afraid to hunt because of the great threat they posed. The vertical arrangement of animals on poles and in other works of art symbolizes the sedentary lifestyle of this era. The importance of the hierarchical relationship between humans and spirits in these artifacts is depicted along vertical axes. It is also important in that he proved that long before man began to cultivate, he began the mental subjugation of animals and established superiority over them. Therefore, Neolithic art serves as a guiding point for understanding the years of human history and evolution.


Ancient Mesoamerican Archaeoastronomy

For centuries civilizations have relied on stars in many aspects of their daily lives. Whether celestial bodies were used for navigation, ritual, understanding of agriculture, or socio-political reasons that often put celestial bodies at the center of their ideology. Many civilizations considered these celestial bodies so high that they united their entire society around certain celestial bodies and annual celestial events, such as the equinox and sunshine, and very often associated these bodies and phenomena with their gods. One such Mesoamerican seemed to have a strong fusion between archaeoastronomy and their daily lives. The purpose of this paper is to show how different people who were associated with Mesoamerica viewed celestial bodies and how they integrated certain celestial events into their architecture, ideology, and daily life.

First, the definition of archaeoastronomy is justified in order to provide a better understanding of what is being discussed here. AF Avenue identified archaeoastronomy in his article entitled “Archaeoastronomy in Mesoamerica and Peru: Commentary: How” is more than a study of ancient astronomy through the use of archaeological data and the use of ancient texts. Archaeoastronomy is an interdisciplinary meeting place for those who are concerned with the perception and concept of the natural world by people of ancient civilizations “(Avery; 165). Summing up, we can say that archaeoastronomy is not just what these ancient people saw and recorded when they looked at the sky as well as how they carried out what they saw and drew conclusions based on such conclusions that carried over to aspects of their lives such as religious, agricultural and even urban planning.Avery offers the argument that archaeoastronomy is more than obvious to archaeoastronomy. archaeoastronomy is not only scientific data, but also the context in which these findings are incorporated to form an ideology based on celestial bodies and various facets of pre-Columbian Mesoamerican culture one can often find art, architecture and many records of rare religious practices that have survived using codes.Even though Avery is so itself may argue that Teotihuacan is special because its alignment corresponds to Serra Gordo (which was the main place where they drew water), which does not necessarily mean that archaeoastronomy has no scientific basis. stand further. In fact, proposing several theories of such an orientation stimulates new debates that may ultimately reveal new evidence about the specific reason that Theotihuacan orients as it is. While Avery is very harsh about the quarrel, many seem to think that Teotihuacan’s astronomical schedule is related to specific events. For example, some anthropologists seem to believe that the orientation of the Pyramid of the Sun at fifteen points to five degrees correlates with the setting of the Sun on August 13th. Moreover, the summit of the Pyramid of the Moon was associated with the narration of noon and midnight in its orientation. It is hard to believe that the orientation of these structures and the coincidence between celestial events are pure coincidences.

Next, it is unlikely that civilizations ignored the sky and what they saw in the night sky. There is so much data, on the contrary. Although Avery may not think that Teotihuacan’s orientation has anything to do with celestial events, he argues that many civilizations were aware of the heavens; their orientation in the sky and the ways in which they travel at night (and daily). According to an article Avery wrote entitled “Tropical Archaeoastronomy,” he argues that many of these civilizations have realized their celestial environment. He wrote: “In all ancient societies the sky and its content lay at the very base of human cognition. Early hunter-gatherers and later sedentary societies were greatly influenced by the reliable accuracy of the cyclical repetitions unfolding in the celestial canopy.” (Avery; 161).

Avery notes that celestial bodies and their positions (and paths) were valued by ancient civilizations and used in this way, for example, as an aid to sailors in navigation. In his work, Avery continues to explain some Mesoamerican astronomical concepts. He focuses on the Maya and commented on his advanced forms of writing, mathematics and astronomy. He goes on to talk about how they “also used the horizon system to monitor celestial events and to mark time.” (Avery; 162). For example, Avery tells of stone markers that were used to denote certain celestial events and their connection to earthly events. He writes: “The stone markers that continue behind Campo Santa to the top of a high hill west of the city. From Campo Santa to the top are about 1.5 km. The sun rises on the PS & OS line observed from the O&P stones on March 19, 1940. .2 “days before the equinox.” (Avery; 162-3). This information alone does not give anything extraordinary about stone markers, however it does provide a bit of background information and helps the reader to form a mental image. He sets the scene for the next quote. Avery then writes: “The sun rises on this day by 6 degrees 31.5 ms. Observation is observed with a simple adjustable compass. Observations on the stone today are performed by saccharins (shamans) for planting and harvesting.” (Avery; 162-3). This passage, though long and filled with scientific jargon, nevertheless shows that these stone marks that have been established can and have been used in conjunction with planting and harvesting. Think of these markers as an almanac of Mayan agriculture. Each year the shaman can go on the rocks and, using the simplest tools, make detailed calculations that will be used to ensure a positive impact on their agriculture. Without markers like these ancient Maya, it would be harder to figure out when to plant to ensure an optimal harvest and when to harvest to ensure the optimal quality of your crops.

Avery also wrote about architecture and its connection to celestial bodies in Mesoamerica. One such site that Averi talks about in detail is the Chichen Itza site. He and his associates discussed the calendar symbolism of certain buildings in Chichen Itza and certain correlations that can be seen in the May calendar. For example, Avery talks about Chichen Itza Castile and how some aspects may be related to aspects of Mayan theology, calendar, and celestial events. He describes Castile from Chichen Itza and connects it to these various aspects. For example, he writes, “This stepped radical pyramid possesses nine terraces, as do the number of levels of deceived Maya” (Avery; 129). Avery demonstrates how the Maya incorporated parts of their ideology into their architectural plans. He goes on to say, “On a divided staircase each side contains eighteen such layers, which is equal to the number of twenty days in May.” (Avery; 129) Avery demonstrates a direct relationship between how the Maya built and decorated this monument, and how they associated their calendar with it. Whether accidentally or intentionally, there is no denying that the similarity of the two attributes mentioned by Castillo shows that the Maya could very well have rooted these ideologies in the stone monuments that dominated the landscape. When Castile is viewed from above, it “resembles the four-sided diagrams of the universe that the ancient Mesoamericans drew in their codes, showing the four directed gods, plants, animals, names of days, etc.” (Avery; 129). Why would these Mesoamericans include this type of theological depth in a physical structure that could only be viewed from above? Could it be that they hoped to win allegiance to the gods by showing them the ways they worship and paying homage to them? Or is it just a mixture of theology and calendar mathematics that has just taken the shape it did, and that it can be viewed from the sky quite completely, is it just a coincidence? This author does not believe. This author believes that there was a conscious intention to appease the gods, perhaps in the hope of years of rich harvests and the prosperity of civilization. The architecture of Shichensky Castilla-Itza is full of possible conclusions. For example, Avery goes on to describe Castillo, writing, “Fifty-two in-depth panels adorn both sides of each staircase, as do the number of years in a calendar tour, the shortest interval in which a seasonal year is commensurate with tzolkin’s,” or a sacred 260-day tour. (Avery; 129). This additional layer of symbiosis between Mayan architecture and ideology lays an additional likelihood by arguing that the physical composition of the Castile at Shichen Itza is not accidental and that there is a conscious thought that has been given to incorporate these astronomical and theological ideas. Avery claims that Castile was built and functioned in a “calendar ritual ability in the context of an ancient four-year New Year’s festival cycle held over the last five days of the seasonal calendar” (Avery; 129). This look, in the eyes of Avera, had a certain ritual purpose. The building itself was incorporated by so many Mayan ideologies and theological beliefs that it was undoubtedly erected as a sacred place.
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Avery has not started a market when it comes to archaeoastronomy. There are many other anthropologists and other stakeholders who have voiced on the subject. After such a man it is Elizabeth Baiti. She wrote an article for modern anthropology entitled “Archaeoastronomy and Ethnoastronomy so far.” In her work she examines the construction of megalithic structures of ancient times and the astronomical techniques used in their construction. It also delves into the new student’s explanation, which includes engineering, archeology, and astronomy. She argues that there are many structures that were erected in ancient civilizations that had a specific purpose of predicting astronomical events. These buildings were installed not only for aesthetic value, although many of these buildings admired the beauty. Speaking of archaeoastronomy, she explains that she “focuses on analyzing the orientations and measurements of megalithic and other monumental ancient structures, many of which, as we shall see, could have been used to predict solar and lunar eclipses and have undoubtedly served to determine sunscreens, sunscreens, and sunscreens.” which allow to establish dates of agricultural activity and ritual cycle of the year “. (Bait; 390). As you can see, there are some similarities between what she is reasoning and the argument presented by Avery. Both give the impression that these buildings, built by ancient Mesoamericans, were built for astronomical, agricultural and religious events. Most of these structures were included in rites that coincided with certain seasonal events, and data can be learned about pottery, art, and other means. It is safe to say that Mesoamerican people focus on certain celestial events such as the solstice and the equinox. Some of these celestial events coincided directly with the planting or harvesting of annual crops that provided the food that Mesoamericans needed to develop as a civilization. The idea of ​​structures predicting specific celestial events is not new and not typical of Mesoamericans. Many other cultures throughout history have erected buildings for the same purpose. For example, Stonehenge is perhaps one of the most famous celestial monuments in the world. Archaeologists have tried to decipher what the stones are. Some archaeologists theorize that they note the magnitude of the moon’s azimuth, others seem to think they are directly related to the sun’s equinoxes and equinoxes. No matter what the differences between astronomers and anthropologists regarding Stonehenge, one thing is for sure — it was erected for a purpose other than pure utility. It is this push and stretching of long-held beliefs regarding the use of these monolithic structures that leads to new advances and breakthroughs in anthropology.

In Mesoamerica there are many other monuments that have archaeoastronomical content. One such site is the Mayan site in Copan. Harvey and Victorian Bricker describe some of the astronomical content on this site, called the 8N-11 group. In their article “Astronomical orientation of the Skyband stand in Kopan” Bricker tells about the Skyband bench. Like Teotihuacan, the orientation of the bench in the sky at Copan plays a key role in trusting the argumentation of the archaeoastronomical content of Mesoamerican cultures. In their article, they write: “The bench in the sky in Kopan is a bicephalic bird war (panels 1 and 9), not a snake, but all panels of the body have celestial images. Panels 2, 5 and 8 are frontal views of the head. The concept of the embodied the god of the Sun or the Sun. Panel 3 is the incarnation of the Moon, and Panel 7 is the personified Venus. Panels 4 and 6 are the incarnations of night and day, respectively “(Bricker; 435). These facts cannot be ignored. The fact that Mesoamericans create art that reflects celestial bodies and, moreover, embodying them, shows that they had a deep connection with the bodies in the heavens. The Skyband bench is a great example of the early Mesoamericans who demonstrate their consciousness of the heavens and celestial bodies that are inside. The Brickers Handbook is a good example of how part of Mesoamerican architecture can offer a wealth of knowledge and credibility for archaeoastronomy. As in any other discipline, the more papers to be published on a particular topic, the more the scientific community notices and hopefully works to accept these hypotheses.

The Maya were not the only Mesoamerican civilization that incorporated celestial images into their structure, and later into their culture. David Carrasco discusses Aztec culture in his article “Star Collectors and the Swaying Sun: Astral Symbolism in the Aztec Tradition.” In his essay, he explains spatial orientation and symbolism. He writes: “The Aztecs observed the stars, measured them and relied on their social and agricultural cycles.” (Carrasco; 284). Do you see a trend emerging? In almost all examples of Mesoamerican archaeoastronomy, agriculture is one of the main components. Without agriculture some civilization will surely perish. The ability to yield a bountiful harvest can mean the difference between a prosperous civilization and one that is in ruins. There are several factors to think about when it comes to agriculture. First, the sun can be both a find and a curse. Its heat and ultraviolet rays are necessary for plants in order to grow and thrive. Too much or not enough heat, and too much or not enough ultraviolet rays, and the crop will suffer. Second, water is needed for agricultural development. Without life-giving water the crop can dry up and civilization will suffer. Too much water and crops can be flooded, which will affect the crops and people will also suffer. The ancient Mesoamericans believed that the gods controlled all these facets of agriculture. Rituals were performed to appease the gods. Turning to the gods, the people hoped that the gods would look down on them generously and give them a bountiful harvest that would help preserve them for another season. It is logical that they wanted to be as well equipped as possible when it came to planting, supervision and harvesting. By including a way of predicting better planting and harvesting times, these people could ensure the sustainability of their civilization for future generations. Many of these ancient Mesoamerican shamans can be considered as early scientists without even knowing what they are. In their eyes, they were simply messengers or arbiters for the gods. In fact, they used the scientific method and applied it to various measuring devices (architectural structures) to show the means of scientific replication from year to year. These shamans knew that the solstice and equinox occur at certain times of the year, every year. Having the opportunity to reproduce these results, they not only helped their people but also built trust in themselves as messengers of the gods. These structures were necessary tools for the shaman to be able to perform his divine duties effectively.

All these examples of archaeoastonomy are connected by a certain imagery and celestial bodies. In almost every case there are images of the Sun, Moon and various other celestial bodies. Although they may be associated with various gods, these Mesoamericans highly regarded these celestial bodies as key elements of their survival. Without the sun the crops would certainly not have been able to. Without the Moon the tides could not be combed and watered, and thus navigation and fishing would be contradictory. Гэтыя ўсе важныя нябесныя багі складаюць неад’емную частку мезаамерыканскай ідэалогіі.

Для далейшага вывучэння гэтага пункту можна паглядзець артыкул Вельда Ягня пад назвай “Сонца, Месяц і Венера на Оксмале”. У гэтым артыкуле ён апісвае элементы многіх мазаік у Uxmal. Паглядзеўшы на гэтыя мазаікі, можна ўбачыць, як яны загружаюцца археаастранамічнымі дадзенымі. Шэлдан паглыбіўся ў гэтую тэму, растлумачыўшы факты, якія тычацца Месяца, Сонца і Венеры, якія знаходзяцца ў мазаіках на гэтым месцы. Ён піша, “што гэтыя прыкметы ў сукупнасці захоўваюць веды пра восем месяцаў пра Сонца, Месяц і Венеру: сінадычны перыяд Месяца складае 29,53 дня; месяцовы сідалічны перыяд доўжыцца амаль 27,33 дня; сярэдняя сінодычная Венера складае амаль 584 дні; назіраная сінодыка Венеры можа вар’іравацца ў межах 581 і 587 дзён; любыя пяць запар сінодыкі Венеры роўныя або прыходзяць на працягу аднаго дня васьмі няясных гадоў па 365 дзён кожны; адна карэляцыя сонца і месяц мае пяць кароткіх гадоў, а тры доўгія разам роўныя васьмі цьмяных гадоў ці восем сапраўдных сонечных гадоў альбо 99 месяцаў; сінерскі перыяд Венеры доўжыцца амаль 224 дні; і, нарэшце, 13 бакавых вырабаў Венеры практычна роўныя пяць сінодыкам Венеры “(Ягня; 79). Хоць гэта выглядае так, быццам гэта проста куча навуковых дадзеных з-за слоўнікавага запасу, у якім размешчана інфармацыя, трэба ўлічваць, што гэтыя мазаікі былі зроблены каля 750-1000 г. н.э. З улікам гэтага можна ўбачыць, як майя былі вельмі зацікаўлены ў нябесных целах і былі вельмі тэхналагічна сугучныя нябёсам. Такі выгляд звестак будзе ажыццяўляцца не на працягу некалькіх дзён і месяцаў, а на працягу многіх гадоў і пакаленняў. Такая самаадданасць можа азначаць толькі тое, што майя былі вельмі паглынуты археаастраноміяй. Гэтыя мазаікі таксама маюць фігуры жывёл, у асноўным змеі птушак, якія таксама адлюстраваны на сценах некаторых будынкаў. Гэта паказвае, што астраномія была інтэграваная і вельмі цесна звязана са сваёй рэлігіяй. Наяўнасць бостваў нараўне з астранамічнымі дадзенымі паказвае моцную карэляцыю паміж рэлігійнымі вераваннямі гэтых людзей і тым, наколькі цесна звязана гэта ў астраноміі. Мая, безумоўна, цікавілася астраноміяй і яшчэ больш зацікаўленая ў спробе захаваць сваю цывілізацыю, разумеючы сваіх багоў. Каб лепш зразумець сваіх багоў, гэта спосаб лепш служыць сваім багам і супакоіць сваіх багоў. Калі багі супакойваюцца, Майя думае, што будзе ўраджай больш багаты, больш паспяховыя ваенныя кампаніі і плён іх цывілізацыі.

У заключэнне, ёсць шмат антраполагаў, якія могуць не цалкам пагадзіцца з рознымі інтэрпрэтацыямі, якія зрабілі некаторыя даследчыкі археаастраноміі адносна архітэктуры і ідэалогіі мезаамерыканскага народа. Шмат чаго з гэтага якраз і ёсць: падрыхтоўка да інтэрпрэтацыі, але дастаткова навуковых дадзеных, якія дазваляюць паказаць, што на самай справе існуе сувязь паміж падзеямі, якія адбываюцца на нябёсах, і тэалагічнымі, сельскагаспадарчымі і культурнымі сувязямі, якія звязваюць многія з іх Месаамерыка да розных нябесных целаў. Гледзячы на ​​сучаснае неба, не дзіўна, што так шмат культур зачаравана дзівамі ў небе і днём, і ноччу. Сёння ў нас ёсць астраномы і перадавыя тэхналогіі, каб вылічыць, вылічыць і асэнсаваць усе дадзеныя, якія здабываюцца з нябёсаў. Яшчэ ў часы ацтэкаў, майя і іншых месаамерыканцаў нельга думаць, што яны зрабілі вельмі навуковыя разлікі ў дачыненні да нябесных тэл без дапамогі камп’ютэраў і іншых частак сучаснай тэхнікі. Дадайце, што з дзівоснай прыродай нябёсаў, і нездарма гэтыя людзі часта звязваюць нябесныя целы з богамі – Сонцам, Месяцам і іншымі нябеснымі целамі. Ва ўсім свеце існуюць падобныя павер’і ад полюса да полюса і ад паўшар’я да паўшар’я. У наступны раз, калі вы паглядзіце на неба і выбярыце сваё любімае сузор’е ці іншыя нябесныя целы, уявіце сабе, што бачылі Майя альбо Ацтэк. Глядзець у нябёсы – гэта як паглядзець у акно, якое вядзе ў мінулае.

Працы, цытаваныя

Авені, А. Ф. “Археаастраномія ў Месаамерыцы і Перу: каментарый”. Лацінска-амерыканскі даследчы агляд. 16. не. 3 (1981): 163-166.

Авені, А. Ф. “Трапічная археаастраномія”. Навука. 213. не. 4504 (1981): 161-171.

Авені, Энтані, Лопе Карлас і Сьюзен Мілбрат. “Спадчына Чычэн-Іца ў астранамічна арыентаванай архітэктуры Маяпана”. Антрапалогія і эстэтыка. не. 45 (2004): 123-143.

Баіці, Элізабэт. “Археаастраномія і этнаастраномія да гэтага часу [and Comments and Reply]”Цяперашняя антрапалогія. 14. № 4 (1973): 389-449.

Брыкер, Харві і Вікторыя Брыкер. “Астранамічная арыентацыя стэнда на небе ў Копане”. Часопіс палявой археалогіі. 26. не. 4 (1999): 435-442.

Carrasco, Davíd. “Зорныя збіральнікі і дрыготкі сонца: астральны сімвалізм у традыцыі ацтэкаў”. Гісторыя рэлігій. 26. не. 3 (1987): 279-294.

Ягня, Уэлдон. “Сонца, Месяц і Венера на Уксмале”. Амерыканская антычнасць. 45. не. 1 (1980): 79-86.


Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara and Taj Mahal

Indian was quite often conceived as a means of religious expression. Both Buddhism and Islam are common religions in India, and because of this it is common to find art that represents both religions. I am especially fond of sculptural works of Indian art. The Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva is an example of Indian sculpture derived from the Buddhist religion, and the Taj Mahal is an example of Indian architecture that comes mostly from the Islamic tradition. These two parts differ dramatically in size and scale, however the shapes have much in common.

The Taj Mahal is located in Agra, India. It was established during the Mughal period during the reign of Shah Jahan. It was built around 1632-1648., It is located on the banks of the Yamuna River, located on the north side of India. It was originally created to become a mausoleum for Shah Jahan’s wife, who ruled from 1628 to 1658.

To get to the TaJ Mahal, you will first come to a huge gate in the complex. When you enter the gate, the tomb stands in front of the spectator. There is a large garden and a reflective pool. The garden is 1,000 feet by 1,900 feet and it is divided into four sections, each filled with plantings of trees and flowers. Around each garden there are paths removed from the inlaid stone that forms the geometric patterns.

When the Taj Mahal was first built, the paths were lined with fruit trees and cypresses, which were supposed to symbolize life and death. There were also fountains in the shallow pools. Court musicians would fill the space, making it a very magical space.

At the back of the garden is a tomb. On the sides of the tomb is a mosque and a building that looks identical to the mosque and is used as a lounge. Both of these buildings sit on the same base as the tomb and seem to visually balance the mass of the tomb itself. The buildings themselves consist mainly of red sandstone. On the other hand, the large central tomb consists of white marble that really shines next to the red sandstone buildings that line it.

The tomb sits on its own base. As in the tomb, the base of the tomb is made of white marble. The entire tomb building is raised higher than other buildings on its marble platform. In each corner of the surrounding Taj Mahal there are four minarets that look like slender towers. Three different levels of minarets correspond to the tombs, symbolically creating a connection between them.

At the top of each minaret sits a tent or pavilion. In traditional Indian palaces Chattri were a common architectural feature. Chatters have their roots in the Islamic religion. Minarets also originate from the Islamic tradition. They were to be of such great height that they compelled all Islamic people to call for prayer. The general structure of the Taj Mahal is very curvilinear and has a certain smoothness. Another work of Indian art that mimics the curvilinear lines of the Taj Mahal is the Avalokiteshvara Bodhisattva.

The Avalokiteshvara Bodhisattva is originally from Kurkihar, Bihar, Central India. This is a work from the late Middle Ages. Originates from the Paul dynasty in the 12th century AD. It is made of gilded bronze and sits about 10 inches high. It is currently housed in the Patna Museum in Patras.

A bodhisattva is a person who has advanced on the path to enlightenment in the beliefs of Buddhism. The goal of the Madhana Buddhists was to help all those they encountered to reach the path to enlightenment. Avalokitesvara is a bodhisattva of the greatest compassion. Avolokiteshvara promised to abandon construction until everyone else became a Buddhist. Because of this he was one of the most populous bodhisattvas.

In the statue of Avolakiteshvara he is depicted in his princely garb, not dressed as a Buddha, who is always depicted in an ordinary monastic mantle. Avakalokiteshvara is recognized specifically for the lotus flower he holds and for the crown of his father’s Buddha. The parent Buddha Avolakitesvara is the Buddha Amitabha of the Western Pure Land, which was a Buddhist version of paradise.

Avolokiteshvara is also depicted with three eyes, which means to say that he had the opportunity to see in miraculous ways. In the pose that Avolakiteshvara assumes in this statue, he is depicted in a casual pose known as a royal pose. One leg is slightly extended and directed downwards, and the other leg is folded at the knees and rests on the lotus seat, which is considered an emblem of spiritual purity. His torso creates a curved fluid, and his arms are slightly bent and also have a certain smoothness.

Both the Avalokiteshvara Bodhisattva and the Taj Mahal are examples of Indian sculptures. The Avalokiteshvara Bodhisattva is a Buddhist statue, and the Taj Mahal is an Islamic tomb. Despite this, these details have a lot in common in how the lines of the piece are processed.


Taunton – A true English language experience

Religious and military upheavals always determined the state of the nation, and England was no different. The English Empire once boasted of dominating half the world, but despite this interweaving of countless cultures, the English way of life has withstood the test of time. “Genuine” England is preserved in many counties, and there is no better place to begin to absorb the history of England than Taunton, which preserves the oldest traditions in its bosom, happily welcoming the 21st century with open arms.

This magical county got its name from “City on the Ton River”. The name Taunton became the corrupt abbreviated name “Tone Town”. The structural history of this city is as old as the history itself, as it was an important site during Saxon rule around 700 AD, and over the next few centuries the city changed hands and rulers quite frequently. Fantastic Castle Taunton was built around 1107 AD. in the traditional Norman style, although it slowly went into disrepair and finally received the necessary repairs during the civil war in the 17th century. This quiet county in the bosom of nature also witnessed some bloody battles and skirmishes in the 15th century, although precautions were taken during World War II when it served as a stop in the event of German aggression, and several boards are still scattered. everywhere.

Mainly because of these turbulent times Taunton fell into disrepair and demanded proper attention from the authorities. It was subsequently declared a “Strategically Important City” and received sufficient funds for various revival projects to maintain the city as one of the major centers of business and culture. These efforts were not in vain, and Taunton became the center of domestic and international tourism in the southwest.

If a magical story just isn’t a motivation for you to visit, how about architecture? Taunton is home to many iconic monuments that are magnificent examples of architecture at the most dizzying heights. Mary Street Chapel and St. James’s Church are just two of the many ornate buildings that boast intricate wood and stonework that are sure to leave every visitor with great caution. For sports fans in the city there are many clubs and teams for various sports and spectacular matches in football, cricket, basketball, etc., which take place every day. Need a break from the hectic tour schedules – then head to any of the public areas and parks in and around Taunton, including the Goodlands Park, Vivari Park and Victoria Park. The most famous is Victoria Park, which in good condition has fountains and architecture in the early 20th century. Thousands of species of flowers, trees, birds and squirrels add a relaxing and already comforting experience.

Taunton may not be as popular as some other tourist destinations in England, but rest assured – if you visit the city, you’ll never forget its incredibly long history and the rustic charm it exhibits.


The history of the Indian temple building

Types of stone architecture

There are two types of stone architecture:

Rock climbing. Rock architecture is made by carving natural rock. Usually carved in the direction of mountain ranges, rock structures are made by excavations of rocks until the desired shape is reached.

The stone is built. This section of this guide, Stone Architecture, on the other hand, provides for the assembly of carved stone pieces that create a whole.

Buddhism gets the ball rolling

The first stone architecture in India was carved and executed by Buddhist monks; to these buildings all architecture was wooden. The most striking examples were the rock religious sanctuaries excavated directly from the basalt mountains lining the western edge of the Deccan Plateau, a lofty, v-shaped landmass consisting of much of the Indian Peninsula. The caves at Ajanta – as well as the nearby Beds, Bhaja, Karla, Kondan, Nashik and Pitalhora – were part of this initial wave of excavations.

Inspiration for stone architecture of India

Early Buddhist architecture was most likely indirectly inspired by Egyptian architecture. The Egyptians were probably the first civilizations in the world to build stone architecture; they began with the stone pyramids in the 27th century BC. (Pyramid of Djozer in Shaqka) and continued with stone tombs in the 16th century BC. (Valley of the Kings in Luxor).

At the same time in Mesopotamia (modern Iran and Iraq) similar stone pyramids, called ziggurats, are being rebuilt nearby; the earliest probably date from the late part of the early dynastic period of Sumeria (2900-2350 BC). The design of the ziggurat pyramid has never been transformed from stepped to smooth edges as it was in Egypt.

Egyptian and Mesopotamian forms and building practices were borrowed by the Persians, who adopted rock architecture. In fact, the royal tombs of Darius (522 BC to 486 BC) and the rest of the ancient Persian (Achaemenid) empire were excavated; they are located near the ancient city of Persepolis in modern Iran. Most likely, the first stone architects of India began to build stone architecture in the III-II centuries BC. These architects adapted Persian forms – giving them the benefits of local design stemming from existing wood-based architecture, and introducing entirely new possibilities according to their unique religious practice – to create stone caves with a whole new aesthetic.

Why did Buddhists first build a stone?

It seems that Buddhists simply provided support to rulers and wealthy merchants during the critical period when Persian architectural practices began to seep into the subcontinent. Keep in mind, although the Buddhist faith was founded in India in the 6th century BC, it did not gain widespread recognition until it received imperial sponsorship from the powerful Moorish Emperor Ashoka, who converted to Buddhism and ruled most of the Indian subcontinent from 269 -232 BC Faith gained momentum when the growth of the merchant class was drawn to Buddhism.


Stop in Strasbourg – a city of heritage

As the first city center, which is fully named a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Strasbourg is among the most beautiful and historic destinations in the world, and by its impressive architecture and numerous museums it is not difficult to see why. Near the German border its traditions and culture represent an eclectic blend of French and European heritage, making it an extremely popular destination during European trips and cruises when visitors experience the true meaning of Europe’s medieval heritage.


Partly thanks to this heritage Strasbourg has such a large number of wonderful museums. To gain in-depth knowledge of the intriguing history of Strasbourg, visitors to the city are invited to visit the Historical Museum, which was founded in 1920 to present the political, economic, social and urban environmental history of the city.

Another important institution to visit is the Museum of the Notre Dame era, which is the city’s museum of fine arts in the Haut-Rhin. Some of his artifacts dating back to the early Middle Ages are famous for the large number of original sculptures, glass windows and architectural segments that he depicts. It is also home to the original plans of one of the city’s most famous buildings – Strasbourg Cathedral.

Cult attractions

Strasbourg Cathedral is known to be the tallest medieval building in Europe and was the tallest in the world between 1647 and 1874, and is still considered one of the greatest examples of Gothic architecture. In terms of high interest for both locals and those visiting the capital of the Alsace region, many of the best tours in the region represent this wonderful structure. Strasbourg Cathedral is so tall that it is visible from all over the Rhine in the Black Forest, which creates an atmospheric reception for those who come to the city via the water on European river cruises.

Architecture and parks

While the Strasbourg Cathedral is one of the city’s most famous works of architecture, there are a number of other famous examples in Strasbourg. Along with a number of other medieval churches in the city, the Opera House on the site of Brogil is a fine example of French neoclassicism.

In addition to its architectural architecture, Strasbourg also has a number of famous parks, including the Parc de Orangery, which was converted as an English garden for Josephine de Bojarn, and the Parc de la Citadel, which sits near the remains of a 17th-century fortress.


Architecture and decoration of Christian churches / cathedrals, Jewish synagogues and Islamic mosques

Reflections on religious monuments as well as their devices in connection with their faith and prayer use. This reflection uses examples of the Jewish, Islamic, and Christian religions as examples of medieval times.

Welding Saser, as well as the religion of the profane sacred, the cradle of the sacer, the intertwined reality of faith and the profane. It is in cathedrals, temples, temples, synagogues and mosques that we connect saser and profanus, the house of prayer. Among the variety of religions and customs he brings a collection of sacred sectors, each with its devoted art and architectural composition and its own apparatus for communication, as well as the pious praise. The sectors are indeed built with their grooves and tiles that promote the aesthetic but pious that symbolize their faith.

The nave, which is the main building of the church, provided the central point of the high alternative, which was set aside for the clergy and extended from the entrance to the altar, which was designed from under the apse, which was surrounded by lower side aisles. This architectural design led to the development of the Gothic Christian abbey, Romanesque and cathedral basilica. The church of the Abbey of Saint-Denis is considered to be the first known Gothic structure in which Christians could worship. At that time Hagia Sophia was the Orthodox church of the basilica and later became the imperial mosque. Before St. Sophia became a mosque, it was a church dedicated to God’s wisdom, logo and the second person of the Holy Trinity. This structure since its inception has discovered some changes, from the first church to the second and third churches, to eventually become a mosque, and is now a museum.

The synagogue is the origin of the Hebrew word meaning house of assembly. It is a dwelling for collected prayer and discussion. The five books of Moses are practiced in Judaism, the Torah, and in the Hebrew Bible. They pray in the face of Jerusalem, and the structure of the synagogue focuses on this, as it is the ultimate link between the Saxons and the laymen. In particular, you can see three doorways, such as the Synagogue of Capernaum (4th century BC). These three points of entry can be attributed to the former liturgical divisions of the three ruined courtyards of the Jerusalem Temple. In the religion of Judaism, the god is non-figurative, and yet this notion is false because the district synagogues reflect artistry. For example, in the synagogue of Dura-Eurpus, a well-preserved Roman garrison between the Roman as well as the Sassan imperial, one can find a niche of the Torah. The separation of these designs provides a chandelier with seven branches, the Menorah, a solid emblem of Jewish art. The number seven symbolizes perfection and completion and represents the commandment of the holy holy day, as stated in the Torah. Also visible is the continuous narrative of the chronological storyline on the walls of Moses ’painting (239 AD). The display has two images of Moses, one turning the rod toward the Red Sea, and the other Moses leading the Israelites. The whole notion of a continuous narrative is related to a visual belief about how to show the relationship between God and humanity. Christians worship in churches, while Jews worship in synagogues, as a meeting place of both the sacred and the profane, as well as between the profane and the saser. In the synagogue it is easy to find the western wall, because it usually has niches of the Torah, which guide people in prayer to Jerusalem.

The architecture of the medieval Jewish synagogue differed from place to place, incorporating the aesthetics of the architecture of Christians or Muslim countries where Jews lived. Unlike the Christian church, whose cruciform design symbolizes the crucifixion of Christ, the synagogue lacked an architectural design that would be a symbolic factor.

Within the synagogue, some obligatory architectural elements provided for liturgical purposes. In the center of the synagogue was an elevated platform on which a Torah scroll was read, and was also called Bima among the Ashkenazi Jews, and among the Sephardim was called Teba.

The architectural significance of the beam reflected the significance of the Torah within Jewish rituals. The Torah scrolls were kept in the Holy Ark, meaning the Ark of the Covenant, which was known as Aaron ha-kodesh among the Ashkenazi and Hekhal among the Sephardic Jews. The arrangement of the ark is such that those who stand before it pray towards Jerusalem. Until the sixth century the ark was kept in a side room and outside a field that was separated by a curtain. In the Middle Ages, the Holy Ark was fixed in the center of the east wall of the synagogue, which stood in front of Jerusalem. The scrolls were aligned in a standing position so that parishioners could view them on the open ark. In turn, the ark, which was richly decorated with lions, was a symbol of Judas and tablets of the 10 commandments. Apparently, the veil, called the steamer, covered the Holy Ark according to Scripture (Exodus 40:21). Thus, the aron ha-kodesh symbolizes the Jewish tabernacle that was built when the Israelites wandered in the wilderness. The east wall should have a semicircular apse, and the front door should be through the west wall opposite the apse.

The prehistoric priestly duty to light a candle to burn forever before the Lord (cf. Lev. 24: 4) was also transferred to the eternal light that hung before the ark and burned all the time. The light of the eternal chandeliers was made of silver, brass or gold, depending on the wealth of the communities, and symbolized the spirituality of the Torah enlightenment. In addition, the synagogue had another desirable feature – a window. Maintaining faith in Daniel 6:11, the place of prayer of the prophets had a window. During prayers in the synagogue, the conscript is used to cover the Torah ark, inside which is the Torah scroll. In several synagogues paraffit is used throughout the year and is replaced on major holy days.

The Dome of the Rock, a shrine located on a temple hill in the old city of Jerusalem, is considered one of the oldest Islamic architectural works, the significance of which comes from religious traditions that are of great importance to both Jews and Christians and Muslims. Christians view the location of the dome as sacred because of the role of the temple in the life of Jesus Christ.

You can use a mihrab to focus on Mecca for prayers. The mihrab seems to have been a newer version of the Torah niche and apse. Due to the requirement to immediately disconnect the person from the profane space around them, the need for prayer was created. Similarly, the Torah scrolls of the medieval Ashkenazi world are read in beams or on an elevated platform located in the center. All seats stand in front of the Holy Ark (aron). In addition, Aaron is one of the many successors to the Torah niche where scrolls are kept.

In conclusion, the art and architecture of medieval Jews, Christians and Muslims were consistently determined by the requirements and dogmas of the respective religious beliefs. To varying degrees, Christians, Muslims, and Jewish artists and architects have inherited the artistic, aesthetic, and architectural heritage they received from ancient Roman, Hellenistic, Persian, and other cultures. In addition, the direct cultural contacts of Jews, Muslims and Christians were expressed in various ways in their material cultural productions. People in the Middle Ages eagerly imitated and also adapted artistic techniques to each other to create their own. It was not surprising for Muslims and Christian monarchs that artists from different religious communities worked for them. All three communities used religious art symbols in art as well as in architecture for polemical reasons.