Green palette

Pakistan inherited much from colonial rule when, on August 14, 1947, it became a sovereign state because there was no other source of developed knowledge and information other than what the rulers accepted and then left for themselves.

The British took control of a state that was largely a monarchist under the Mughals, but when they left, it had to accept the whole known democratic system of politics; the thrones, where the emperors once sat, secured the governor-general, presidents, and prime ministers for the future. The army, social institutions, music, sports, fashion, cuisine, architecture, and administration, in short, all spheres of life absorbed and displayed a rich wealth of postcolonial Western influence, as this doctrine was considered the best and most appropriate due to its association with the ruling and powerful class.

The language has adopted a modern and unconventional style thanks to a complete exit from Persian and partly Arabic; two major languages ​​that have remained a hallmark of distinction and wisdom for the Muslim community, from the Nile to Kashgar. Modern Muslims, especially after bringing them to the status of modern politics thanks to the entirely new and liberal policies of the Indian Conference of Mohammed Anglo and the scholars of Oligarch College, which later became a university, were well acquainted with the new philosophy, psychology and architecture. , science and all other branches of literature and art, this class actually occupied after the birth of the new state of Pakistan on August 14, 1947. Therefore, the general acquaintance with Pakistani art was mainly the inspiration of Western contemporary art of the early period. 20th century; fragments of postmodern American or postwar European art.

In the early days of Pakistan, Anna Molka Ahmed was in Lahore, a migrant artist from the UK who also tied the first generation of Pakistani artists to the Department of Fine Arts at the University of Punjab, which she founded in 1940. This department prepared the first batch of four teachers who later formed the first years of Pakistani art; these were Anwar Afzal, Zakia Malik Sheikh, Razia Feroz and Nasim Hafeez Kazi.

On the other hand, there was Zubeda Aga, who was trained by BS Sanial and Italian prisoner of war Mario Perlingeri. She later received an art education in the west, so was influenced by western style and technique. Zubeda rejected the traditional style of painting and became the first modernist colorist, despite the resistance of domestic critics.

At the same time, Anna Molka tried to cover local themes related to religion and folklore, but because she was an expressionist in her technique, the local fauna and flora caught fire after being expressed using the “knife and palette” technique. Sometimes Anna just squeezed the colored tube on the canvas and pulled it with a knife to get the right immediacy and embossed texture. So what she produced was indigenous in subject matter, but very western in terms of technique.

Given that the native style was attributed to the Mughal School of Miniature Painting, which later gained popularity in the hills of Himachal Pardesh (Basoli, Chamba, Guler, Kangra and Bilaspur) before the Sikh era. Ustad Haji Sharif was one of the exhibitors of the painting in the court style due to the long affiliation of their ancestors to the royal court of Patiola, an important Sikh state of the present-day Indian Punjab. After moving to Lahore, Ustad Sharif passed on his knowledge and passed on top lighting and book illustration skills to the Department of Fine Arts and the Mayo School of the Arts (NCA) in Lahore.

Another Ustad, Allah Bakhsh, in keeping with the traditional and realistic style of the East contributed to the birth of Pakistani painting. Allah Bakhsh painted a rich culture and folklore along with a touch of romanticism in the subject, especially when he put on the canvas such folk love stories as Hir Ranja and Sokhni Mahival, and at the same time he was influenced by modern art and romantic artists from the west, exhibit mystical canvases like “Talism and Hoshrub”.

During this evolutionary process, secular miniature painting breathed in Calcutta, where Abyandr Nath Taygor was a big fan of the hash technique. This style inspired the free hand of Abd al-Rahman Chuthai, who evolved the Bengali style of miniature painting to unmatched heights. Apart from Chutai, no one could really maintain the standards of lyrical quality, soft layers of diffuse pigments and stylized approach, although few tried to get acquainted with the technique, but the wisdom and education of Chugtai acquired in this area. art from abroad and from abroad, and the intelligentsia around him in the form of his famous friends made him the only example of his own style; Chuthai style.

Later, Pakistan was associated with a magician from Sodekian: a painter with theatrical qualities, dramatic themes and a very rough line of quality, who hatched texture in the frame to give rise to philosophical and poetic themes that the artist inspired to a great level. The desire for louder and clearer communication forced Sadekian to switch to calligraphic painting, which later became his face and was exhibited on a large scale, such as the ceilings and frescoes in the Lahore Museum and the Mangla Dam, respectively. Ismail Gulgi was another advertiser of the calligraphic style of painting, which, being conceived as “Islamic art” as opposed to figurative art, gained popularity in religious groups. Eventually non-figurative art earned market recognition and flourished under the unfavorable circumstances of 1980s military-Islamic rule.

If we look at academic inspirations other than Anna Molka, we can find Shakira Ali tall and exclusive in the scene with her very simple and rhythmic paintings in flat shades of reds, oranges and blues along with a variety of lines. Its textures in flat colored areas were simple but skillfully crafted and skillfully balanced. His presence at Lahore National College of the Arts has led many to follow him in acquiring new and modern techniques, which he picked up during his academic stay in London.

In Western art, Cézanne, Van Gogh and Gauguin are later taken as the initiators of Cubism, Expressionism and Fauvism. According to this scheme, we could divide Pakistani art into three dimensions – the followers of Chutay, Sadekawin and Shakira Ali. However, since the latter was the director and teacher of a famous art institution, his impact was enormous. For this reason, we were able to see his followers in the form of Panj Piare (five loved ones) modeled after Navratny Akbar (Nine Jewels). These were Rachel Akbar Javed, Sheikh Safdar, A.J. Shamza, Ali Imam and Moyene Najmi. Another reason for such popularity was the style and themes that Shakir introduced to the new generation of the late 1960s and early 1970s, which were more practical and corporeal in execution, even to reflect the most abstract and intangible ideas, contrary to Sudek’s miniatures or poetic themes.

Pakistani institutes provided education on the western lines, while the old masters of the usual conventional styles mostly transferred their art to the graves, with the small exception of a few students.

In “Calligraphy” Ahmed Pervez and A.J. Shamza are names that have contributed to the collective form of Pakistani art based on their individual style, but some others have done so to a greater extent. Khalid Iqbal is one who could be called a maestro in landscape painting, with his local colors and western technique of creating enchanting foreground and depth in the backgrounds thanks to the control of tonalities formed by diffusion shades. He introduced modern realism to Pakistan, which inspired many. Khalid’s presence, first in the Department of Fine Arts and then in the NCA, academically inspired a generation of artists in his parental relationship. His submerged but soft canvases captured different shades of Pakistani land.

Saeed Akhtar, another talented NCA graduate, a competence painter who solved his drawing problems by accepting and applying observations, he encountered while sculpting sculptures; a way to gain the skill of three-dimensional figurative and portrait painting. Realistic and accurate rendering became his mark of respect.

Zakhar al-Ahlak with his philosophical and abstract approach strengthened the conceptual basis of contemporary art in Pakistan and forced NCAs to adopt modern styles and techniques in painting.

The University of Punjab gave Colin David, the most talented and arguably the most controversial student of Anna Molka for many reasons, but the magnificent draftsman of divine linearity he had received. His figurative work revealed his anatomical experience, which allowed him to present Pakistani art with an exaggerated sense of Rubens and Raphael.

Zulkarnain Haider began work as a sequel to Khalid Iqbal, adopting landscape painting in almost a similar style, but gradually Kashmiri’s restless blood accepted the new challenges that nature posed to him in changing light, interfering with branches, and stretched earth; he captured them from foot to point of extinction on the horizon or even beyond.

Ghulam Rasul added stylization to his landscapes and enriched the colors of his paintings. He also used the small hills of Patahara as a gray background behind the lush green fields.

Contrary to the modern realism of Khalid Iqbal and company, Zubeda Javed emerged as a painter with a strong imagination. She is one of those rare Pakistani women painters who have adopted the modern technique of painting landscapes and urban landscapes in a manner that many considered closed to the semi-abstract and impressionistic. With an intuitive color palette and a colorful brush, she has created a unique and aesthetically pleasing display of colors that come from a deep background. Her style of painting encouraged a modern approach to color, composition and light.

English literature inspired Mian Ijaz al-Hassan to think and act in accordance with the new ideologies that were in vogue in the 1970s, his thematic and radical paintings based on communist doctrine disrupting a strong sleep in the upper halls. However, he “red obliquely” dug up the fragile soil of Pakistani land and sowed the seeds of the yellow tree of Labourne (Amaltas); a key symbol of his paintings.

Iqbal Hasian shed light on the burning and rotten problems associated with the celebrity’s place; area of ​​red light. His “Cityscapes” can transport you to the dark alleys and whispers of the walls of the old city, while his portraits of bulky and carefree women look in social commentary to the unaccepted side of society.

On the other hand, Ghulam Mustafa created a labyrinth consisting of narrow and shady paths of the fenced city and lush green mountains of the northern areas, soft pastels on the textured surface of pastel sheets or on well-stretched large areas. of rough canvases with oil paints.

Bashir Ahmed initiated the department of miniature painting at the NCA, which inspired many young painters to adopt this conventional style of painting. Bashir’s desire to restore the tradition of miniature painting has led to modern miniature, which has revolutionized the genre in Pakistan.

With torches in the hands of all of the above, along with them were many others who passed the Pakistani palette to a new generation of painters, moving into the 21st century.


A brief history of South Africa and Cape Town

Sir Francis Drake proclaimed it “the fairest cape of all”, passing Cape of Good Hope in 1577 in search of the desired spice route to India, and I agree: it is a truly amazing city, neatly hidden in a natural harbor, guarded by an iconic mountain.

With such an incredible city, of course, history always attracts attention, and I thought I would give a brief overview of the trials and tribulations of the “mother city” of South Africa.

Although many sailed around the Cape of Good Hope, it was not until 1652 that Dutchman Jan Van Rybik, a member of the VOC (Dutch East India Company), arrived at the Cape and arranged to set up a service station for fresh fruits and vegetables for all passing ships that were European / colonial. development really began in South Africa.

Jan Van Rybik landed at Cape on three ships – “Reyer”, “Dramedaris” and “Gide Hoop” accompanied by 82 men and 8 women (including Maria de la Queller, his wife). The ships “Walvis” and “Oliphant” arrived later, having survived a terrible sea voyage, where they had to bury in the sea 130 souls, a large number due to the terrible disease “scurvy”. Prior to their arrival on the land mostly dominated by Hottentots and Hoysan, local hunters gathered tribes.

With the arrival of new settlers in this new and exciting “De Kaap” a whole new society was created. A truly eclectic mix of cultures, races and religions.

At first the VOCs did not want to conquer or colonize the land (they did not want a government headache), they only wanted fresh fruits and vegetables, however with the start of the war between the Dutch Republic and England there was intense tension to get as much land to help the result of the war.

To ensure the safety of the new land, Ian proceeded to build a castle in Cape Town, directly on the sea, he christened it after the first ship arrived at Cape de Goed Hoop, and made of mud, clay and wood, with the 4 angles indicated in honor the first 4 ships that arrived at the cape. (The Castle of Good Hope still stands on Adderley Street in Cape Town, due to the recession and land restoration in Cape Town, it is now located more internally than it could have been when it was originally built. The best example of VOC architecture that has survived, and the oldest building in Cape Town)

This construction required a huge amount of work, and it was then that slaves began to be sent to De Kaap, mainly from other Dutch territories, including Angola, Madagascar and Batavia (now known as Java). These slaves banded together and became recognized by Cape Malay, today they are the heart and soul of Cape Town with their culture, traditions and religious rites.

When the war stopped (around 1657), the VOC gave the first permits to release 9 company employees, who became known as the Free Burghers, to cultivate the land along the Lisbeck River. This was the beginning of a permanent settlement at Cape.

Jan Van Rybik remained the director of the Cape until 1662, at this stage the settlement numbered only 134 officials, 35 free burghers, 15 women, 22 children and 180 slaves.

Simon van der Stehl, after whom the town of Stellenbosch is named, arrived in 1697 to replace Van Rybeck as governor of Coopstadt. As a rule, Van der Steel appropriated the beginning of the Cape wine industry, taking with him on the ship the first vines. Because the area in the Stellenbash region was ideal for grape harvesting, this trade settled well and quickly became an important part of their trade and economy. Wines from the cape were prized and were soon imported back to the Dutch Republic. Simon van der Stel also supported territorial expansion in the Colony.

The first non-Dutch migrants to the cape (other than slaves brought to work on the land) were the Huguenots, who arrived in 1688 and escaped anti-Protestant persecution in Catholic France. At first they fled to the Netherlands, where they were given free passage to the cape, as well as land for cultivation. This was the VOC’s inherent move to boost wine production at the cape. The Huguenots, who knew a great deal about winemaking, set up their house in an area which they called “Franchhook” (French Corner), and at once proceeded to the house; including celebrating all their French traditions. (Today they still celebrate Bastille Day in Franschhoek.)

The settlement at the Cape grew rapidly over the next few years, and by 1754 the number of settlements at the Cape had reached 5,510 Europeans and 6,729 slaves.

However, as usual, the war was of great importance to the new Cape colony, and when in 1780 France and Britain started a war against each other, the Netherlands went to war on the French side, and thus a small battalion of French troops was sent to the cape to protect it from the British. They did not stay long at Cape and were soon transported back to France in 1784. As usual, the old allies soon became adversaries, and when France invaded the Netherlands in 1795, the Prince of Orange was forced to flee to his old enemy England for safety. .

Because the news had been going to the Cape for so long, the Governor of Cape knew of the new agreement only when the British arrived in Cape Town with a letter from the Prince of Orange stating that they were allowed to defend Cape Town from the French. .

Unfortunately, the Commissioner’s reaction was mixed, and the British had to fight for the Cape at the Battle of Muisenberg. As a rule, the period back and forth began with the fact that the cape was given to the Dutch in the treaty of 1803, and then returned to the British in 1806.

However, from 1806, when the British resolutely entered, they took control of the city and set about making it a more developed city for living. They sent home the colonists, and soon in 1820 the English began to arrive in their numbers. More and more people arrived daily, this caused expansionism (mainly by the original Dutch, now known as the Afrikaner or Boer (farmer) settlers) inland, and soon colonies were established in the free state of Transvaal and Orange.

Soon the conflicts between the Boer republics in the interior and the British colonial government in Cape Town ended with the Second Boer War of 1899-1901. Britain with its stronger military force and human strength eventually won the war, but not without much effort, fighting against the tactics of guerrilla warfare in the Boers.

In 1910, Britain created the Union of South Africa, which united the Cape Colony with the two defeated Boer Republics and the recently recognized British colony of Port Natal. Cape Town became the legislative capital of the Union and later of South Africa.

Over the next few years both the British and the Africans lived in comparative harmony in this new union, and many beliefs and values ​​became prevalent among the people of the South African Union.

In the 1948 national elections, the National Party received astonishing support based on the policy of apartheid (racial segregation). They succeeded under the slogan “Swart Gevaar” (in English it means Black Threat). They taught people to beware of blacks and wanted them to see in them a danger to their lives and work. This soon led to the creation of strategies such as the Group Areas Act, which meant that all people living in South Africa were classified according to race and skin color. Many serious tests have been conducted to establish whether people were black, colored, or white; one of the funniest was the pencil test, when a pencil was inserted into the hair of a person of suspicious color, and when the pencil got stuck in people’s hair, it meant that they were black, because these people are more likely. Of course, this is quite logical !? And this meant that the same families were divided among themselves and classified as black and white in one family, which of course caused immense hardship and suffering to the whole family.

With the classification of races, living segregation quickly emerged, when colored and unpainted people were not allowed to live in the same areas. Earlier, the multi-lane neighborhood of Cape Town was cleared of colored people, and their homes were demolished. One of the most shameful examples of this is the “Six Counties,” where in 1965 a decision was made to have a single white zone, and more than 60,000 people were forcibly deported and their homes destroyed. Further nothing was done with this land; it was just a declaration of segregation! Many of these residents have been relocated to areas such as Cape Flats and Lavender Hill.

Under apartheid rules, Cape Town was considered a “color work preference zone,” meaning you can secure a color person’s job, but you can’t hire a black “bow”. Whites clearly preferred, but in case of serious need you could hire a colored person.

As you can imagine, given the many rules, acts and forms of segregation the lives of many people have been truly tyrannical. However, not all white and colored people supported the apartheid regime, and there were many, especially in the Cape Town area, who started the fight against apartheid and joined it.

Unfortunately, it took a lot of time and a lot of heartache and suffering before things went ahead.

Robben Island, ex [penitentiary|prison] an island 10 kilometers from the city, was [famous|well known|renowned] for many political prisoners, some of whom were held for years. The most famous [inmate|prisoner|convict] was Nelson Mandela, who was imprisoned for 27 years, but during all that time he never gave up [hope|faith|belief] what a “new” South Africa might be [achieved|created|established].

The end of the apartheid era was firmly symbolized when, on February 11, 1990, Nelson Mandela delivered his first public speech. [balcony|gallery] Cape Town City Hall, a few hours later [released|set free] from Robben Island. His emotional speech filled with passion and joy [heralded|announced|indicated] the beginning of a new era for the country.

The first democratic elections in South Africa took place four years later, on April 27, 1994.

It was the beginning of a new Rainbow Nation – a land for all.

For me, South Africa really symbolizes the best of the human spirit, the triumph of good over evil and the power of people and perseverance. If you believe in something hard enough and work on it, it will eventually come true.

Since 1994, when the new Republic of South Africa was firmly in place, people have been able to focus on the exhibition to protect their amazing city to the rest of the world. And it’s amazing.

In Cape Town there is so much to see and do that you need at least 4 or 5 days to explore this fantastic region. From the city itself, to Cape Point, to vineyards, town tours, whale watching, scuba diving, deep sea fishing, Harley-Davidson riding, mountain biking, horseback riding, hot air balloon safaris, fine dining, museums, museums shopping just relax on Victoria and Alfred’s waterfront and take it all.


Kenyan Safari – The most popular sites, places and activities in Africa

Kenya stretches across the equator with the tops of Mount Kenya – the second highest mountain in Africa – rising from a natural environment of exceptional beauty, Kenya is a very rewarding place to travel. It’s impossible to see everything Kenya has to offer in one trip, and I don’t suggest you give it a try.

Things not to be missed on safari

Climbing Mount Kenya is the second highest peak in Africa, and the glacier on top of Mount Kenya is an extinct volcano that runs across the equator. You can go up the lower slopes at will, but if you try the 5200-meter peak, you need to go slow enough to acclimatize.

Overland Safari “Turkana” – A remote visit to “Turkana” takes place on a camping safari from Nairobi, which includes days of clashes, although in arid deserts there are locals, wildlife and swollen rivers.

Rhinoceros reserves in Kenya have several such as the ranch for Solia games, near Aberdares, which gives the opportunity to see a black and white rhino.

Hot air balloon safaris are an unforgettable experience that costs almost every penny $ 400, or so you pay to be above the plains at dawn (that’s about five bucks a minute)

Kakamega Forest: An isolated area of ​​equatorial forest that once encircled the expanse of Africa, Kakamega is a haven for hundreds of species that are nowhere to be found in Kenya

Eco Lodges – Kenya has wonderful, albeit expensive, locations in pristine parks and nature reserves, such as the Shompale Nature Reserve.

Cave Skulls – Tights store exhumed skulls of the dead in hidden rock niches – an example of a traditional religious practice that is becoming increasingly rare

Travel Dow – Sailor Sinbad for a day on a leisurely cruise on the Dow around Lamu

Birdwatching – Kenya’s diversity of habitat explains an unusual 1,070 species of birds, including this vulture de der Deken. Even the ignorant are quickly transformed, so take binoculars

Diving and Scuba Diving: The Kenyan Coral Reef has excellent scuba diving opportunities with diving schools in all major centers, as well as scuba diving equipment that is available for rent to the enemy for a couple of hours. Vasini, Watamu and Kiva – great sites

The tea country of the tea capital of Kerich Kenya and the most important center for shrubs throughout Africa is surrounded by an endless sea of ​​glistening green plantations

Lama, welcoming an island where there is a lack of business, also has some of the best preserved ancient urban architectures of Africa, many of the houses dating back hundreds of years.

Crafts: Wood carving is a stock of Kenyan vendors, but there is a huge range of other crafts that can be seduced by chic fabrics made of fabric on musical instruments.

The migration of wild Masai masses, watching cacophonous herds from the banks of the swollen flood of the Mara River, especially at one of the deadly crossroads infested with crocodiles, is one of nature’s most spectacular impressions. The migration takes place between July and October.

Nyama choma The most popular big food in Kenya – Nyama Choma or fried meat – goat, lamb or beef – and lots of beer. Nyama Choma bars can be found all over the country

Live music: Live music is easy to find in cities on any weekend. Nairobi is the biggest focus for dozens of clubs and teams, but wherever you are, taxi drivers or hotel staff can help in the right direction.

Walks with the bushes immerse you in the experience of the bushes, coming from the bush walks offered in the playhouses in a number of parks and reserves such as the Masai Mara.

The ruins of Gedi The eerily atmospheric ruins of the Swahili city, abandoned in the 17th century, take time to marvel at the jungle-shaded alley away from the main site.

Mzima occurs in a beautiful oasis in the Tsavo National Park. Gurgling with crystal clear water and inhabited by hippo crocodiles and a variety of small species.

Fort Jesus Mombasa is a place of terrible battles between Portuguese and Arab colonizers and locals: today in the spacious leaf interior of the fort is a beautiful historical museum.

Tivi Beach – just one of the most beautiful beaches in Kenya, from which you can easily get from Mombasa and less crowded than Diani Beach, further south


A complete definition of music

Music portal

Music is an art form that includes organized and audible sounds and silence. This is usually expressed through pitch (which includes melody and harmony), rhythm (which includes tempo and meter) and sound quality (which includes timbre, articulation, dynamics and texture). Music can also incorporate complex generative forms over time by constructing patterns and combinations of natural stimuli, mostly sound. Music can be used for artistic or aesthetic, communicative, entertainment or ritual purposes. The definition of what constitutes music varies according to culture and social context.

If painting can be seen as a visual art form, music as an auditory art form.

Allegory of Music, Philippines Lippi

Allegory of music, Lorenzo Lippi


1 Definition

2 History

3 aspects

4 Production 4.1 Performance

4.2 Solo and ensemble

4.3 Oral tradition and notation

4.4 Improvisation, interpretation, composition

4.5 Composition


[edit] Definition seen []

Main article: Definition of music

See also: Music genre

The broadest definition of music is organized sound. There are regularities in general music, and although there are clear cultural variations, the properties of music are the properties of sound that are perceived and processed by humans and animals (birds and insects also create music).

Music is a formulated or organized sound. Although it may not contain emotions, it is sometimes designed to manipulate and transform the listener / listeners ’emotions. Music created for movies is a good example of its use to manipulate emotions.

Greek philosophers and theorists of the Middle Ages defined music as tones arranged horizontally as melodies and vertically as harmonies. Music theory in this area is studied with the view that music is orderly and often pleasing to the senses. However, in the twentieth century, composers challenged the notion that music should be enjoyable, creating music that explores tougher and darker timbres. The existence of some modern genres, such as grindcore and noise music, which enjoy a wide underground, suggests that even the roughest noises can be considered music if the listener is so prone.

20th-century composer John Cage disagreed with the view that music should consist of pleasant, conspicuous melodies, and he challenged the view that it could communicate anything. Instead, he argued that any sounds we can hear could be music, saying, for example, “No noise, only sound.”[3]. According to musicologist Jean-Jacques Nates (1990, pp. 47-8, 55): “The line between music and noise is always culturally defined – this means that even within one society, this line does not always pass through the same place; in short, consensus is rare …. By all accounts, there is no single and intercultural universal concept that defines what music can be. “

Johann Wolfgang Goethe believed that patterns and forms were the basis of music; he stated that “architecture is frozen music.”

[edit] The story seen []

Main article: History of music

See also: Music and Politics

Figurines on stringed instruments, excavated in Susa, 3rd millennium BC. National Museum of Iran.

The history of music precedes the written word and is linked to the development of each unique human culture. Although the earliest records of musical expression can be found in India’s Veda itself and in the 4,000-year-old cuneiform from Ur, most of our written records and research relate to the history of music of Western civilization. These include musical periods such as the Middle Ages, Renaissance, Baroque, Classical, Romantic and the twentieth century. The history of music in other cultures has also been documented to some extent, and knowledge of “world music” (or the field of “ethnomusicology”) is becoming more and more in demand in academia. These include documented classical traditions of Asian countries outside the influence of Western Europe, as well as folk or local music of different cultures. (The term world music was applied to a wide range of music made outside Europe and European influence, although the original use in the context of the World Music Program at the University of Weslin was a term that included all possible musical genres, including European traditions. In academia. (The original term for the study of world music, “comparative musicology,” was replaced in the mid-twentieth century by “ethnomusicology,” which some still consider an unsatisfactory coin.)

Popular musical styles varied greatly from culture to culture and from period to period. Different cultures emphasized different instruments or techniques or ways of using music. Music was used not only for entertainment, ceremonies and practical and artistic communication, but also widely propagandistic.

As world cultures have come into greater contact, their indigenous musical styles often merge into new styles. For example, the bluegrass style in the U.S. contains elements of Anglo-Irish, Scottish, Irish, German, and some African-American instrumental and vocal traditions that have been able to merge in the multinational U.S. “melting pot” society.

There are many classifications of music, many of which are involved in the debate over the definition of music. Among the largest of these is the division between classical music (or “artistic” music) and popular music (or commercial music – including rock ‘n’ roll, country, and pop music). Some genres do not fit into one of these “big two” classifications (e.g., folk music, world music, or jazz).

Genres of music are determined by both tradition and presentation, and real music. While most classical music is acoustic and intended to be performed by individuals or groups, many works that are described as “classical” include samples of either tape or are mechanical. Some works, such as Gershwin’s Rhapsody in Blue, are claimed by both jazz and classical music. Many modern music festivals celebrate a certain musical genre.

Disagreements often arise as to what constitutes “real” music: late Beethoven string quartets, Balinski Stravinsky’s scores, serialism, bebop jazz, rap, punk rock, and electronics – some critics considered non-music when they were first introduced.

[edit] Aspects seen []

Main article: Aspects of music

The traditional or classical European aspects of music that are often listed are the elements that give precedence in classical music under the influence of Europe: melody, harmony, rhythm, color tone or timbre and form. A more complete list is given with aspects of sound: pitch, timbre, volume and duration.[1] These aspects combine and create secondary aspects including structure, texture and style. Other commonly included aspects include the spatial arrangement or movement in space of sounds, gestures, and dances. Silence has long been considered an aspect of music, ranging from dramatic pauses in the symphonies of the Romantic era to the avant-garde use of silence as an artistic expression in 20th century works such as John Cage 4’33. “John Cage considers duration to be the primary aspect of music because it is the only aspect common to both‘ sound ’and‘ silence ’.

As mentioned above, not only the aspects that make up music change, but also their significance. For example, melodies and harmonies are often considered more important in classical music due to rhythm and timbre. It is often debated whether there are aspects in music that are universal. Discussion often depends on definitions. For example, the fairly common claim that “tonality” is universal for all music requires a broad definition of tonality.

Impulse is sometimes taken as universal, but there are solo vocal and instrumental genres with free improvisational rhythms without a regular pulse;[2] one example is the alapian section of the industani musical performance. According to Dane Harwood, “we need to ask whether it is possible to find an intercultural musical universal in music itself (either its structure or function) or the way music is created.” By making music “I’m not only going to the actual performance, but also the way the music is heard, understood and even studied.” [3]

[edit] Production

Main article: Music industry

Music is composed and performed for a variety of purposes, ranging from aesthetic pleasures, religious or ritual purposes or as an entertainment product for the market. Amateur musicians compose and perform music for their own enjoyment, and they don’t try to make a profit from music. Professional musicians work in a number of institutions and organizations, including the armed forces, churches and synagogues, symphony orchestras, broadcasters and music schools. In addition, professional musicians work as freelancers, looking for contracts and participations in a variety of settings.

Although amateur musicians differ from professional musicians in that amateur musicians have a non-musical source of income, there are often many connections between amateur musicians and professionals. Beginner amateur musicians take lessons from professional musicians. In public, advanced amateur musicians perform with professional musicians in various ensembles and orchestras. In some rare cases, amateur musicians reach a professional level of competence and they can perform in a professional performance setting.

A distinction is often made between music performed for the benefit of a live audience and music performed for the purpose of recording and distribution through a music retail system or a broadcasting system. However, there are also many cases where a live performance in front of an audience is recorded and disseminated (or broadcast).

[edit] Performance

Main article: Performance

Chinese musicians Naxi

He who performs, composes or conducts music is music. Musicians perform music for a variety of reasons. Some performers express their feelings in music. Performing music is a pleasant activity for amateur and professional musicians, and it is often done for the benefit of the public, which derives some aesthetic, social, religious or ritual significance. Part of the motivation of professional performers is that they make a profit from making music. It’s not just income motivation, but music has become a part of life as well as society. Allowing to motivate a person and through one’s own motivation, as they say, “for the love of music”. In addition, music is performed in the context of practice as a way to develop musical skills.

[edit] Solo and ensemble

Many cultures incorporate strong traditions of solo or solo performance, for example, in classical Indian music and in the traditions of Western art music. Other cultures, such as in Bali, include strong traditions of group performances. All cultures include a mixture of both, and performance can range from impromptu solo playing for fun to highly planned and organized performance rituals such as a modern classical concert or religious processions.

Chamber music, which is music for a small ensemble in which no more than one instrument of each type, is often seen as more intimate than symphonic works. A performer is called a musician or a singer, and they can be part of a musical ensemble, such as a rock band or a symphony orchestra.

[edit] Oral tradition and notation

Main article: Sheet music

Musical notation

Music is often stored in memory and performance, transmitted orally or by ear (“by ear”). When a music composer is no longer known, this music is often classified as “traditional”. Different musical traditions relate differently to how and where changes are made to the source material, from fairly rigorous to those that require improvisation or modification of the music. In The Gambia, West Africa, the history of the country is heard through songs.

When music is recorded, it is usually recorded so that there are instructions as to what the listeners should listen to and what the music should do to perform the music. This is called musical notation, and the study of how to read a notation includes music theory, harmony, the study of performance practice, and in some cases an understanding of historical performance techniques.

Written notations vary depending on the style and period of the music. In Western Art music, the most common types of written note are scores, which include all the musical parts of the ensemble and the parts that are the musical notation of individual performers or singers. In popular music, jazz and blues, the standard musical notation is the leader, who notes the melody, chords, lyrics (if it is a vocal work) and the structure of the music. However, scores and parts are also used in popular music and jazz, especially in large ensembles such as jazz “large groups”.

In popular music, guitarists and electric bassists often read music marked with a table showing the location of the notes to be played on the instrument, using a guitar or bass fingerboard scheme. Tablature was also used in the Baroque era to note music on a lute, string, fret instrument.

Usually the music to be performed is created as notes. To perform music from a notation requires an understanding of both the musical style and the practice of performance associated with the piece of music or genre. The details included in the musical notation vary between genres and historical periods. In general, the musical notation of artistic music from the seventeenth to the nineteenth century required from performers vast contextual knowledge of performing styles.

For example, in the 17th and 18th centuries, music celebrated for solo performers usually pointed to a simple, unornamented melody. However, it was expected that the performers would know how to add style-appropriate ornaments such as trills and twists.

In the nineteenth century, artistic music for solo performers could give general instructions, such as performing music expressively, without describing in detail how a performer should do it. The performer was expected to know how to use tempo changes, accentuation and pauses (among other devices) to get this “clear” performance style.

In the 20th century, sheet music often became more obvious and used a number of markings and annotations to show performers how they should play or sing a piece. In popular music and jazz, musical notation almost always shows only the basic framework of melody, harmony, or a performance approach; musicians and singers are expected to know the rules of performance and styles associated with certain genres and pieces.

For example, a “lead sheet” of a jazz melody can only indicate a melody and chord changes. Performers of the jazz ensemble are expected to “refine” this basic structure by adding ornaments, improvised music and chordal accompaniment.

[edit] Improvisation, interpretation, composition

Main articles: Musical Composition, Musical Improvisation and Free Improvisation

Most cultures use at least part of the concept of pre-perception of musical material or composition that exists in Western classical music. Even if the music is celebrated accurately, the performer has to make a lot of decisions. The process by which a performer decides how to perform music that was previously composed and celebrated is called interpretation.

Interpretations of the same music by different artists can vary greatly. Composers and songwriters who present their own music interpret, as do those who perform the music of others or folk music. A standard set of options and techniques present at a particular time and place is called a performance practice, where either the individual choice of the performer or an obscure aspect of the music is usually used as an interpretation, and therefore has a “standard” interpretation.

In some musical genres, such as jazz and blues, even more freedom is given to the performer to engage in improvisation on basic melodic, harmonic, or rhythmic frameworks. The greatest freedom is given to the performer in a style of performance called free improvisation, which is material that is spontaneously “thought” (imagined) during performance rather than thought out. According to Georgiana Castescu’s analysis, improvised music usually adheres to stylistic or genre conditions and even “fully composed” includes some freely chosen material (see Pre-composition). A composition does not always mean the use of a notation or the known sole authorship of one person.

Музыку можна таксама вызначыць, апісаўшы “працэс”, які можа ствараць музычныя гукі, прыклады гэтага – ад перазвону ветру да камп’ютэрных праграм, якія выбіраюць гукі. Музыка, якая ўтрымлівае выпадкова абраныя элементы, называецца Алеатарычнай музыкай і часта асацыюецца з Джонам Кейджам і Вітольдам Лутаслаўскім.

[edit] Склад

Музычная кампазіцыя – гэта тэрмін, які апісвае кампазіцыю музычнага твора. Метады кампазіцыі ў розных кампазітараў вельмі розныя, аднак пры аналізе музыкі ўсе формы – спантанныя, навучаныя альбо непадрыхтаваныя – будуюцца з элементаў, якія складаюць музычны твор. Музыку можна складаць для неаднаразовага выканання альбо можна імправізаваць; складаецца на месцы. Музыка можа выконвацца цалкам па памяці, з пісьмовай сістэмы нотных запісаў альбо з нейкай камбінацыяй абодвух. У вывучэнні кампазіцыі традыцыйна пераважае вывучэнне метадаў і практык заходняй класічнай музыкі, але вызначэнне кампазіцыі досыць шырокае, каб уключыць стыхійна імправізаваныя творы, такія як выканаўцы фры-джаза і афрыканскіх барабаншчыкаў.

Для разумення кампазіцыі твора важна вылучыць яго элементы. Разуменне фармальных элементаў музыкі можа дапамагчы ў расшыфроўцы, як менавіта пабудаваны твор. Універсальны элемент музыкі – гэта тое, як гукі ўзнікаюць у часе, што называецца рытмам музычнага твора.

Калі ў п’есы здаецца, што час змяняецца, ён лічыцца ў рубато, італьянскі выраз, які паказвае, што тэмп п’есы змяняецца ў адпаведнасці з выразным намерам выканаўцы. Нават выпадковае размяшчэнне выпадковых гукаў, якое адбываецца пры музычным мантажы, адбываецца ў нейкі час і, такім чынам, выкарыстоўвае час як музычны элемент.

[edit] Прыём і праслухоўванне, як бачыў

Асноўны артыкул: Слух (сэнс).

Канцэрт у Моцартэуме, Зальцбург

Сфера музычнага пазнання ўключае вывучэнне многіх аспектаў музыкі, у тым ліку таго, як яна апрацоўваецца слухачамі.

Музыка адчуваецца людзьмі ў розных сацыяльных умовах: ад самотнасці да наведвання вялікага канцэрта. Музычныя спектаклі прымаюць розныя формы ў розных культурах і сацыяльна-эканамічным асяроддзі. У Еўропе і Паўночнай Амерыцы часта існуе разрыў паміж тыпамі музыкі, якія разглядаюцца як “высокая культура” і “нізкая культура”. Тыпы музыкі “высокай культуры” звычайна ўключаюць заходнюю мастацкую музыку, такую ​​як барока, класіка, рамантык і сучасныя сімфоніі, канцэрты і сольныя творы, якія звычайна гучаць на афіцыйных канцэртах у канцэртных залах і цэрквах, пры гэтым гледачы сядзяць ціха на месцах.

З іншага боку, іншыя віды музыкі, такія як джаз, блюз, соўл і кантры, часта выконваюцца ў барах, начных клубах і тэатрах, дзе гледачы могуць выпіць, патанцаваць і выказаць сваё ўра. Да самага позняга 20-га стагоддзя падзел паміж “высокай” і “нізкай” музычнымі формамі быў шырока прыняты як сапраўднае адрозненне, якое аддзяляе больш якасную і больш дасканалую “мастацкую музыку” ад папулярных стыляў музыкі, якія гучаць у барах і танцавальных залах.

Аднак у 1980-х і 1990-х музыказнаўцы, якія вывучалі гэты ўспрыняты разрыў паміж “высокім” і “нізкім” музычнымі жанрамі, сцвярджалі, што гэта адрозненне не заснавана на музычнай каштоўнасці альбо якасці розных тыпаў музыкі. Хутчэй яны сцвярджалі, што гэта адрозненне ў асноўным грунтуецца на сацыяльна-эканамічным становішчы альбо сацыяльным класе выканаўцаў альбо аўдыторыі розных тыпаў музыкі.

Напрыклад, калі ў гледачоў класічных сімфанічных канцэртаў звычайна даходы вышэй за сярэдні, то ў гледачоў хіп-хоп-канцэртаў у раёне горада даходы могуць быць ніжэй за сярэднія. Нягледзячы на ​​тое, што выканаўцы, аўдыторыя альбо месца, дзе выконваецца не “мастацкая” музыка, могуць мець больш нізкі сацыяльна-эканамічны статус, музыка, якая выконваецца, напрыклад, блюз, хіп-хоп, панк, фанк ці ска, можа быць вельмі складанай і складаны.

Глухія людзі могуць адчуваць музыку, адчуваючы вібрацыі ў сваім целе, працэс, які можна ўзмацніць, калі чалавек трымае рэзанансны, полы прадмет. Вядомым глухім музыкам з’яўляецца кампазітар Людвіг ван Бетховен, які склаў шмат вядомых твораў нават пасля таго, як цалкам страціў слых. Сярод нядаўніх прыкладаў глухіх музыкантаў – Эвелін Глени, высока прызнаны перкусіяніст, які глухнуў з дванаццаці гадоў, і Крыс Бак, скрыпач-віртуоз, які страціў слых.

Дадатковая інфармацыя: псіхаакустыка


Vedic cosmology – Planets of the Material Universe

The cosmology and cosmography of the ancient Vedas, to put it mildly, is awe-inspiring. It is known that more “modern” Vedic texts date from about 3000 BC. E., Being the oldest scientific and religious doctrines known to man. The description of our solar system and the fact that modern astronomy has discovered the visible universe, corresponds to the ancient Vedic knowledge, which proves that man possessed advanced knowledge in astronomy thousands of years before the beginning of our modern civilization. This article describes the Vedic version of planetary systems from the most faithful, eternal planets, through temporal planetary systems in the innumerable universes of this material world.

By saying “cosmic manifestation,” we are talking about two separate worlds, the spiritual and the material. Spiritual planetary systems are eternal, outside the material universes, and belong to the “excessive” or “antimatter” dimension. They go beyond material time and space and are therefore beyond our vision or powers of perception. In these planetary systems there are no instances of creation or dissolution, and these planets are unlimited, inviolable, and eternally existing. There are descriptions of these spiritual planets in the Vedic literatures, but this article is devoted to those who are in the material universe.

Material planetary systems are created at some point in time and destroyed at other times. They are related to the influence of time and space. Both of these energies (spiritual and material) have the same divine source called “brahmajyoti,” the spiritual light. About 1/4 of this brahmajyoti is covered by the “mahat-tattva,” the material energy where the innumerable material universes are located. Part 3/4 is the eternal spiritual heaven. In the spiritual world there are two spheres of existence, “Holoka-dhama” and “Hari-dhama”. In the material world there is one kingdom called the “Davy Lady”.

The Holocaust is the highest planet and the residence of the Supreme Lord Sri Sri Radha-Krishna. Beneath this is the Hari-dama, where the spiritual planets of Vaikunthaloka are located. Below the planets of Vaikuntha is the “Mahesh-dhama” (also called Sadasivaloka, or the place of Lord Shiva). It is the realm that separates the spiritual from the material universes. Below the Mahesh-lady is the Davy-lady, the realm of the material universe. It is said that yoga systems offer different directions. Bhakti-yoga directs a person to enter Hari-dam or Galaka-dham. Jnana-yoga directs the contender to enter the Mahesh-dam, and karma-yoga – to remain in the Davi-dam, experiencing rebirths and deaths in the material worlds.

The planetary systems of Davy Ladies

In the Bhagavad-gita we find the assertion that there are three divisions of material planets in our universe. These are “urdhva-loka” (higher), “madhya-loka” (middle) and “adho-loka” (lower). Above the Urdva-loki are the coverings of the material universe, behind which lie the eternal spheres of existence. Within these three spheres of existence are 14 major planetary systems with different standards of life and longevity. The inhabitants of the upper three systems have almost no disease and aging of the body, and they do not feel fear. As planetary systems advance, life expectancy and living standards decrease, and disease and anxiety become more pronounced.

The 14 planetary systems are named as follows, from highest to lowest:

1) Satya-loka

2) Tapa-loka

3) She-loka

4) Mahar-loka

5) Svar-loka

6) Bhuvar-loka

7) Bhur-loka

8) Atala-loka

9) Vitala-loka

10) Sutala-loka

11) Talatala-loka

12) Mahatala-loka

13) Rasatala-loka

14) Patala-loka

In one of the Vedic scriptures, called Hari-vamsa, there is the following description: “Above the planetary systems where humans live is the sky. Above the sky is the orbital sun, which is the entry point of the celestial planetary systems. This is the middle of the universe. , where the planets of the exalted begin with great austerity and repentance.The planets above them, as far as Satya Loki, are the residences of those who have advanced in spiritual knowledge.All these planets are in the material world and under the control of Devi (Goddess Durga) “Lady.”

The term “lobster” (immortal) is often used to describe the inhabitants of the celestial planets because their lifespan is unimaginable to us, but although they live millions of years by our calculations, none of the material worlds can live here forever. The Bhagavad-gita describes the life expectancy of those who live on Satyaloka. One day equals 4,300,000,000 solar years. On other celestial planets, day is considered equal to six months of our time, and night is also equal to six months on earth. These souls live in their bodies for 10 million years.

The length of time, such as day, night, months, and years, varies in different planetary systems, and there are different types of people, animals, trees, and vegetation. Some of the planets visible to us are considered to be celestial planets with different terms. Jupiter, Venus and the Moon are examples of planets where one day equals six months on earth. How can this be, one might ask, if we can see these planets orbiting the Sun?

One starting point, which for some may be difficult to understand, is crucial to this understanding. All planets have different sizes that surround them. The dimension of existence visible to our eyes gives the impression that the other planets of our solar system are largely devoid of life. In fact, astronomers have found evidence of intelligent life on other planets, despite the fact that so far little is known. The supervision that can be seen with our physical eyes cannot enter the celestial realm of these planets, where there are virgins, angels and higher beings, and even in people who enjoy an existence far greater than what can be obtained on our planet Earth.

Just as there are spheres of existence on and around the earth that are invisible to our eyes by etheric beings, some of which are highly developed and others are associated with unfortunate circumstances (such as ghosts), all planets have different spheres of existence. Can we never learn about the multidimensional reality on earth with our physical eyes, since we could count on entering with them into the higher realities of other planets?

There are also different types of oceans on different planets in the material world. “Siddhanta-siromani”, an ancient Vedic astrological text describes them as seven varieties:

1) ocean salt water

2) ocean of milk

3) ocean cottage cheese

4) ocean ghee (clarified oil)

5) an ocean of sugar cane juice

6) ocean liqueur

7) Ocean of fresh water

Our minds can talk about this notion of different types of oceans, but why should any of them be more fantastic than the ocean of salt water we have here on earth?

There are also several eternal planets that seem to be in this material universe, but they are always inaccessible to humans. The text of Laghu-Bhagavatamrita describes these eternal planets as follows: “Above Rudraloka, the planet of Lord Shiva, is a planet called Vishnuloka. Its circumference is 400,000 miles and is inaccessible to any mortal living person. Above this Vishnuloka is a golden island called Ma -Vishnuloka in the ocean of salt. Brahma and other demigods sometimes go there to meet Lord Vishnu. Lord Vishnu lies with Lakshmi (goddess of happiness). resides with the goddess Lakshmi. Its transcendental island is 200,000 square miles and is covered with trees of desire to please the Supreme Lord. “

This planet is called “Dhruvaloka” and we consider it as a pole. It is said to be 3,800,000 yojans above the sun (one yojana equals 8 miles). Above Dhruvaloka for 10,000,000 yojans is Maharloka. Above Maharloka, on 20,000,000 yojanas, is Janaloka, another 80,000,000 yojanas is Topaloka, and above 120,000,000 yojanas is Sateloka. The Vaikuntha planets begin 26,200,000 yojans outside of Satyaloka.

The scripture “Vishnu Purana” describes that the outer covering of the Universe begins above the Sun by 260,000,000 yojans. About 70,000 yojanas underground begin the seven lower planetary systems of Atala, Vitala, Sutala, Talatala, Mahatala, Rosatala and Patala. Beneath these 30,000 yojan planets is the Garbhodak Ocean, where Sesa-Naga is located. The depth of this ocean is 249,800,000 yojanas. This gives an approximate diameter of the universe of 500,000,000 yoga or 4,000,000,000 miles. These distances are calculated depending on the distance between the planetary “planes” of existence. The actual distance between the planets may be greater.

The higher planetary systems are the kingdoms of gods, demigods and angels. Bhuvarloka is a place of ghostly spirits, and the lower planets are inhabited by demonic consciousness as well as snakes known as “Nagi”. The development of higher consciousness, which also includes advanced intelligence, begins with man and further increases among the inhabitants of the higher planetary systems. The earth is close to the middle of these planetary systems.

Description of planetary systems


It is the abode of Lord Brahma, the ancestor of this material universe. There are mantra-controlled aircraft here, not mechanical ones. The inhabitants have intelligence and intelligence, but no material gross bodies. They feel compassion for those who suffer in the lower regions but do not suffer fear, old age and death. At the moment of the final dissolution of the material planets, the inhabitants here turn their subtle bodies into spiritual bodies and fall on the eternal planets of Vaikuntha. The great yogis are finally reaching this highest planet along the Milky Way, which is the “highway” to this most sublime planet, where life expectancy is estimated at 15,480,000,000,000 years.


It is the residence of four Kumaras named Sanat, Sanaka, Sanandan and Sanatana. Many great sages also live in this world due to their spiritual austerity. Enjoying the residents is unimaginable for us as it surpasses everything in our experience. When the material universe is destroyed, the inhabitants here also turn their subtle bodies into spiritual ones and go out into the spiritual sky.


This planet, which is still above the kingdoms of heaven, is another abode of great saints and sages. This planet is inhabited by mystics who move to higher planets and eventually turn their subtle bodies into spiritual ones when the fire of devastation engulfs material planets. These inhabitants can move between any planets in the material universe as mystical “cosmic” with unimaginable speed for us.


With complete cleansing from material desires and pollution by sacrifice, repentance and charity, one can reach the celestial planets, and with further advancement through higher orbits one can reach Maharloka. In this place lives the greatest of sages, such as Brig Mooney. It is behind Sisumara, which is a key turning point of the universe. Advanced yogis reach this planet and live here 4,300,000,000 solar years. When the fire of devastation almost reaches this planet, the inhabitants are transported to Sateloku, where they live on before this highest of the planets is destroyed. They then transform their subtle bodies into spiritual ones and enter the spiritual realms.


In every material universe there is one planet Vaikuntha with the ocean of milk where Lord Vishnu lives on an island called Svetadvipa. This planet is Dhruvaloka. Living here is a completely clean person. In our universe, this planet is seen as a pole and is above the planets of the Seven Rishis. Because it is a spiritual planet, it is eternal and therefore remains when all other planets in the material universes are destroyed. It is said that this planet is the support for all the material orbits of stars and planets. All planets travel at high speeds in orbit, including the Sun, which travels 16,000 miles per second in its orbit around Druvaloka. The planets of the seven sages are the stars just below this planet, which also revolve around Druvaloka. They always care about the well-being of living beings in this material world and send emissaries who will bring spiritual knowledge at different times and circumstances.

Sanayskara (Saturn)

Saturn is considered an astrologically unfriendly planet because it gives us painful lessons here on earth. It is located 1,600,000 miles above Jupiter and passes through one zodiac sign every 30 months.

Brihaspati (Jupiter)

Jupiter is considered the most auspicious celestial planet and is generally considered auspiciously astrologically, depending on the location at the time of our births here on earth. It is a planet of virgins located 1,600,000 miles above Mars.

Angaraka (Mars)

Mars is considered an evil planet that creates a lack of rainfall on Earth and is almost always able to create adverse effects here. It is located 1,600,000 miles above Mercury.

Buddha (Mercury)

It is said that Mercury is the son of the Moon and is 1,600,000 miles beyond the planet Venus. Like Venus, it sometimes moves behind the sun, sometimes in front, and sometimes with it. Generally, Mercury’s influence is favorable astrologically, unless it is moving with the sun. At such times, this planet causes big storms on earth.

Shukra (Venus)

Venus is considered to be the most auspicious and auspicious planet as well as one of the celestial planets. It is said that Venus brings precipitation, another reason that it is considered favorable for life on earth.

Chandraloka (Moon)

The moon is one of the four most important residences of the demigods. Those who worship the demigod through sacrifices aimed at great material bliss advance to the moon. A heavenly, intoxicating drink called “catfish” is available here. It is impossible to enter or even see the true celestial dimensions of this planet with our present eyes. The moon passes through the entire zodiac in about one month. It affects the growth of vegetation, so it is considered the livelihood of all living things on earth.

Surya (Sun)

The sun is a source of light and heat for our universe. Modern science also considers many stars to be suns, but in the Vedic literature they are considered to be planets with different material elements but not a center like the Sun. Surya, the sun god, is considered an extension of Narayana (the form of Lord Vishnu). He controls the seasons here on earth. It is located between Bhuloka and Bhuvarloka, rotating in the temporal circle of the zodiac. Yogis who practice hatha or ashtanga yoga, or those who make sacrifices to the fire, worship the sun for their own benefit. The demigods who live on the planet Sun have bodies of fire necessary for life here.


Rahu is said to be an invisible planet 80,000 miles under the sun. This causes solar and lunar eclipses, as Rahu along with Ketu are the northern and southern nodes of the Moon respectively.

Siddhalaka, Karanaloka and Vidyadharaloka

These planets are 80,000 miles below Rahu. The inhabitants of these planets are born with natural mystical forces, including the ability to fly without mechanical means even to other planets. They have all the mystical siddhis, and how materially perfect beings can control gravity, time and space. Their art, culture, and science far surpass the knowledge we possess here on earth.

Yakshaloka and Rakshashaloka

Under these higher planetary systems in the sky is called “antarksha” – the residences of Yaksha, Rakshasha, Pisach, ghosts and other etheric beings. This kingdom spreads as far as the wind blows and clouds float across the sky. There is no air over it.

Bhu Mandala (Middle Earth)

The planetary systems of Middle-earth (Bumandala or Bhuloka) are the habitats of both levels of life we ​​enjoy on our planet, as well as some celestial places where living beings can “stop” on the way to or from birth to celestial planetary systems. There are seven planetary systems that are divided into seven oceans. The names of the planetary systems are Jambu, Plaksha, Salmali, Kush, Kravncha, Shaka and Pushkar. Each system is twice the size of the previous one, and each ocean between the systems consists of salt water, sugar cane juice, liqueur, ghee, milk, emulsified yogurt and fresh water.

The bumandala is in the shape of a lotus flower, and the seven planetary systems are in a lotus vortex. The radius of Bhumandala extends all the way to the sunlight, and to the limits of our vision here sees the stars and the moon. Since sunlight reaches the earth from a distance of 93,000,000 miles, this is the radius of the Bumandala plane.

Lower planetary systems

Under the ground are seven other systems called Atala, Vitala, Sutala, Talatala, Mahatala, Rosatala and Patala. These lower planetary systems are the same size as the terrestrial planet, and begin 560,000 miles underground. Sunlight does not reach these planets, and the light comes from the jewels on the hoods of the snakes. Гэтыя планеты населены людзьмі з вялікай сілай і багаццем, але з дэманічнай свядомасцю, якія дабраліся сюды праз жорсткую эканомію, накіраваную на матэрыяльнае задавальненне без духоўнага развіцця. Яны не становяцца старымі і хворымі і баяцца толькі фактару часу, які ў канчатковым рахунку павінен разбурыць іх жыллё. Таму ім дадзена назва “біла-сварга”, або падземныя нябесныя планеты.

Жыхары тут карыстаюцца стандартам матэрыяльнага камфорту, больш багатым, чым нават вышэйшыя планеты, дзякуючы іх імкненню да высокіх стандартаў пачуццёвага задавальнення, багацця і ўплыву. Жыхары вядомыя як Дайцяс, Данавас і Нагас, і ўсе яны займаюцца ілюзорным матэрыяльным задавальненнем, не думаючы пра духоўнае вызваленне. У іх гарадах адбываюцца неверагодныя архітэктурныя подзвігі, упрыгожаныя каштоўнымі каштоўнасцямі ў дамах, садах, злучэннях і г. д. Усе жыхары п’юць сокі і купаюцца ў травяных эліксірах, якія вызваляюць іх ад любых трывог і фізічных захворванняў, а таксама любых прыкмет фізічнага старэння. Візуальная прыгажосць гэтых штучных нябёсаў пераўзыходзіць прыгажосць вышэйшых планет, і гэтая пачуццёвая атмасфера цалкам захоплівае розум, не дазваляючы думак, акрамя тых, якія накіраваны на пачуццёвае задавальненне і шчасце. Паколькі час не дзеліцца на дні і ночы з-за таго, што на гэтыя планеты не даходзіць сонечнае святло, яны не баяцца часу. Толькі падчас растварэння трывога і страх іх паглынаюць.

Наракалока, пякельныя планетарныя сістэмы

Пад планетай Паталалока і крыху вышэй за ваду акіяна Гарбходака знаходзяцца Наралокі, альбо пякельныя планетарныя сістэмы. Гэтыя планеты пакутуюць рознай ступені для тых, хто павінен вытрымаць там жыццё. Тут, на зямлі, мы можам бачыць шмат пякельных абставінаў пакут для людзей, але нічога падобнага на тое, што перажываецца на гэтых планетах. Кажуць, яны з’яўляюцца месцам выпраўлення для тых, хто здзяйсняе самыя агідныя дзеянні, жывучы як чалавек на зямным плане. Хоць жыццё тут і здаецца, што працягваецца цэлую вечнасць, на самай справе працягласць “кармічнага прысуду” тут можа складаць толькі секунды ці імгненні. У ведыйскіх літаратурах апісана 28 розных пякельных планет.

Гэтыя апісанні матэрыяльнага стварэння, а таксама духоўных планет можна знайсці ў некалькіх ведыйскіх літаратурах на значна большую глыбіню. Я па неабходнасці значна скараціў прыведзеную тут інфармацыю.

З часам усе планетарныя сістэмы ў матэрыяльным свеце будуць знішчаны. Гэта знішчэнне адбываецца двума спосабамі. Частковае знішчэнне адбываецца кожныя 4 300 000 000 сонечных гадоў, альбо ў канцы кожнага дня на Сацялоцы. Гэта распасціраецца ад пякельных планет праз усе ніжнія планетарныя сістэмы аж да нябесных планет. У гэты час самыя высокія планеты не знішчаюцца. Усё касмічнае праяўленне завяршаецца ва ўсеагульнай форме Бога кожныя 8 600 000 000 х 30 х 12 х 100 сонечных гадоў. Духоўны свет, які ніколі не знішчаецца, проста паглынае матэрыяльнае стварэнне. Апісана, што да разбурэння дажджоў не бывае сотні гадоў. Усё высыхае і гіне з-за бесперапыннага сонечнага святла. Сонца становіцца ў 12 разоў магутнейшым, чым было раней. Потым ідуць жудасныя дажджы, якія паглынаюць усё ў ваду.

Смяротныя целы жывых істот, уключаючы ўсю расліннасць, зліваюцца ў зямлю. Зямля зліваецца ў сваё тонкае адчуванне водару. Водар зліваецца з вадой, а вада – з якасцю густу. Той густ зліваецца з агнём, які зліваецца з формай. Форма зліваецца ў дотык і датыкаецца з эфірам. Эфір нарэшце зліваецца ў адчуванне гуку. Усе пачуцці зліваюцца ў сваім паходжанні, кіруючых дэвах і паўбагоў, затым яны зліваюцца ў кіруючы розум, які зліваецца ў эга ў гуне дабра. Гук злучаецца з эга ў гуне невуцтва, і эга (першае з усіх фізічных элементаў) зліваецца ў агульную прыроду. Агульная матэрыяльная прырода раствараецца ў рэжымах (дабро, запал і няведанне). Затым гэтыя рэжымы зліваюцца ў неіманіфікаваную форму прыроды, і гэтая неманіфестная форма зліваецца з часам. Час зліваецца з Вышэйшым Богам, прысутным як Маха-Вішну, першапачатковы стваральнік касмічнага праяўлення. Паходжанне ўсяго жыцця зліваецца з Богам, ненароджанай Вышэйшай Душой, якая застаецца адзінай без секунды і ад якой адбываецца ўсё стварэнне і знішчэнне. Гэта знішчэнне матэрыяльнага свету з’яўляецца дакладным адваротам працэсу стварэння. У канчатковым рахунку, усё ляжыць у Найвышэйшым Абсалюце.


Historic Hampi provides a soulful experience

Not every day is an opportunity to break free from the clutches of everyday, anxious and ordinary life in the city and relax in an exotic place far away. The prospect of a quiet separation from the monotony of our urban existence was felt. The combination of holidays in Dassar and weekends gave us the opportunity to spend a long-awaited holiday among the ruins of Hampi 12-15 century – a world-famous holiday destination, located 355 km from Bangalore.

We were a team of five hardcore adventurers, vacationers and heritage lovers. Our team consisted of Kishor Patvardhan, Shiva Kumar, Sri Krishna, Mahesh V and I. Fully lit, we embarked on our stay with a targeted hike among the rocks and cliffs of Hampi, the headquarters of the Vijayanagar Empire for 13-15 centuries.

Hampi is a World Heritage Site

Hampi is a world-famous tourist heritage site and one of the 16 UNESCO-recognized World Heritage Sites in the country. Once a cultural boom involving sculptors, musicians, artists and artisans who worked together to turn the high vision of the Vijayanagar princes into lasting monuments, Hampi is now an underdeveloped village that does not even have a proper resin road. The ruins spread over an area of ​​26 square meters. Km and cause the pomp and glory of the ancient Hindu kings. Rich palaces, temples and massive fortifications are built with such ingenuity that they blend naturally with the surrounding rock formations and look as if they have just grown out of them.

Located on the shores of the graceful Tungabhadra, among massive boulders and rocky hills, Hampi was the capital of the ancient Vijayanagar Empire, which controlled the Dean for more than 200 years from 1336 to 1565 AD. E., and reached its zenith during the reign of Krishnadevarai the most famous emperor. After the death of Krishnadevarai in 1529 AD. E. Neighboring Muslim Bahamian rulers united and attacked Hampi. The invading armies roamed the city, destroying its beautiful temples and monuments, leaving the once great city in ruins.

The current Hampi is divided into four separate sectors – Venkatapura in the northeast, Hampi in the northwest, Kadyrampura in the south and Kamalapura in the southeast. On the opposite bank of the river is Anegondi, the old capital of the Vijayanagar Empire, which houses a massive fort and other monuments. Several imposing monuments are in various stages of destruction and are under the auspices of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) – a central government body mandated to protect and maintain all of the country’s historic sites. Although ASI has begun restoration and protection of the site, the effort seems insufficient. Seriously understaffed, it is unable to prevent insensitive tourists from tearing down and destroying monuments that are already collapsing under the pressure of the elements.

So far, ASI has discovered and restored about 121 major monuments in Hampi and installed explanatory signs and information boards in front of each. Easy-to-read digitally printed maps have also been placed in strategic locations among the ruins to help tourists find their way to their chosen monuments. Trained ASI guides can acquaint visitors with the monuments (tour guide fee: Rs 150-500 per day). For those who prefer to wander the ruins on their own, you can rent vehicles: bicycles (100-200 rupees per day) and motorcycles (300-500 rupees per day, excluding fuel). Auto-rickshaws run by self-proclaimed local guides are also available.

Day 1 – travel to Hampi

The journey of 355 km from Bangalore to Hampi, located in the area of ​​Belara in the state of Karnataka, began on October 12 at 20.15. The first 25 km from the garden city was a tortuous bustle through the streets clogged with traffic. The next stage, a section of about 200 km on NH-4 (National Highway-4) to the famous fort town of Chitradurga, was fast and smooth on the new toll highway (10 rubles per car ride), built under the project “Golden Quadrangle”. The remaining 120-kilometer stretch on the bumpy National Highway-13, which connects Hampi via Hospet to Chitradurga, was a bumpy and slow ride, we finally got to Hampi around 4am.

Day 2 – tour of the temples in the main market area of ​​Hampi

Arriving at the unearthly hour (4 am), we decided to pitch a tent and set up camp among the mountains on the manicured lawns of Mathi Hampi Vidyaranya – the religious institution that runs the Virupaksha Temple for our well-deserved siesta. The local administration collects entrance fees from all vehicles entering Hampi (30 rubles by car, 45 rubles by bus and 5 rubles by two wheels).

After a short nap and a refreshing swim in Tungabhadra we set off to explore Hampi and its heritage sites. The first stop was the Virupaksha Temple in the main market area, the largest operating temple complex in Hampi. Massive mahadvara(main entrance) leads into a wide open courtyard of a beautiful stone temple, which is supported by intricately carved pillars and friezes. Perhaps the most striking feature of this 15th-century temple is the small dark cabin behind the sanctuary sanctuary, where the shadow of the imposing is inverted. раджаагопурам (entrance dome) is depicted on the wall opposite – evidence that the pinhole camera technique and the properties of refraction and dispersion of light were perfected and practiced in India long before they became known in the western world. The tallest building in the ancient city, раджаагопурам Virupaksha temple is well visible all the way to Kamalapuram, about 5 km.

Marveling at the Virupaksha temple, we climbed the nearby Ratnakuta hill, littered with several small abandoned temples. Adjacent to Ratnakuta is the hill of Hemakuta, scattered with temples and large dolmens. Among the buildings at the top of Hemakuta Hill is the notable Sassivekal (mustard seed) of Ganesha, a monolithic image of the elephant god 12 feet high, fixed in an open pillar pavilion. Consecrated in 1506, the statue depicts the four-armed ruler Ganesha sitting in ardha oiled yogic. Another monolithic idol, the 18-foot Cadalecalu (Bengali gram) of Ganesha, anchored on the hill of Hemakut, is set in a magnificent dolmen supported by attractively carved pillars and friezes depicting the gods and goddesses of the Hindu pantheon.

When the sun was mercilessly beating, we took a break for lunch and rested in the cool shade of the ruins. Refreshed, we walked the uneven path to the sprawling temple of Achutara about 500 meters from the main bazaar. The temple has some of the most decorative carvings found in the ruins, and was built by Salakaradzi Tsirumaladeva, the chief officer of King Achutarai, the predecessor of Kryshandevarai. Towering gopuram at the entrance leads to the carved halls of the temple and the sanctuary. An important shrine inside is dedicated to the Fire, the God of Fire.

We ended the day by visiting the top of Matang Hill. Climbing a steep flight of 600 steps, intertwined and making their way between massive boulders and through caves, was worth the effort. The view from the top, to the sunset, which floods the ruins of Hampi with crimson light, opened up an amazing view.

Day 3 – a tour of the royal enclosure and other monoliths

Going deeper into the ruins of Hampi, we took a magnificent monolithic statue of Lakshmi Narasimha 26 feet tall (the embodiment of the half-lion-half-man Vishnu) perched on top of the giant coils of the seven-headed serpent god Odysseus. Consecrated in 1528 by order of Krishnadevarai, the sculpture originally depicted the charming wife of Lakshmi, who was sitting on Narasimha’s lap. It is believed that the monolith was mutilated, and the idol Lakshmi was broken into pieces by raid troops. In the immediate vicinity is the idol of Lord Shiva, known as Badavaling. A 12-meter lingam, carved from shiny black granite, rises from a shallow pool of clear water.

Our next stop was to the most famous temple of Wimpala Hampi – 5 km by road or 3 km on rough terrain through rocky hills or by road. We chose the latter – a solution that gave an unforgettable experience. On the way there were monuments far from the tourist cycle – Purandara-Mantapa on the banks of the river Tungabhadra; and the Balance of the King, where the princes of Vijayanagar are believed to have weighed gold and silver ornaments received as a tribute from the subordinate kingdoms.

The Temple of Vittal is perhaps the best example of the architecture of Vijayanagar. Originally built by King Devaraya (1421-1440), it was further decorated during the reign of Krishnadevarai (1509-1529). The temple is impressive rajagopura, a sabha mantapa (meeting room), narasimha mantapa, hookah mantapa (wedding hall), utsava mantapa (functional hall) and several small ones devi shrines in the aisles. Pillars carved from single granite blocks with carved friezes produce musical notes with soft pressure, prompting mantapa to baptize the Hall of Musical Pillars.

And yet, perhaps the most spectacular building in Hampi is the marvelous Stone Chariot installed in the Temple of Vithal. This life-size and 22-foot-tall wheelchair is a testament to the skill of Vijayanagar-era stone carvers. The intricately carved monolithic stone wheels of this chariot rotate in axis with the precision and detail of their awe-inspiring sculptures.

A little distance away is the great temple of Khazar-Rama, which was originally built by the kings of Vijayanagar for private worship. The temple, standing in a fenced-in enclosure, radiates an air of elegant serenity when the soft moonlight illuminates its magnificent friezes, even when its rock sculptures shine in the rays of the morning sun. Relief sculptures on walls and temples depict scenes from the epic Ramayana.

The next stop was the Royal Corps, which contained the Lotus Mahal, the elephant stables, the Zenan enclosure, the Makhanov Dybba, and the stepped tank. Zenan’s Fence or the Queen’s Quarter is an eclectic mix of Hindu and Islamic architectural styles, surrounded on all sides by tall watchtowers – most of which are in a state of disrepair. The elegant Lotus Mahal looks suspended like a floating palace on a full moon night. Nearby are elephant stables, a majestic row of 11 domed stalls, with arched connecting doorways. One of the palaces here has been turned into a museum, which presents an impressive collection of royal artifacts.

A huge area known as Mahanavami dibba, with an area of ​​5,300 square meters. Feet, served as an observation deck for kings, consorts, and royal officers. Approximately 30 feet above ground level it is adorned with intricately carved horses, soldiers, a pair of dignitaries overlooking foreigners and a stage in which girls are seen frolicking in the water. A magical view of Tungabhadra as she silently makes her way through the rocky cliffs. Another monument that is a must visit here is a stepped reservoir about three meters deep, into which water was supplied through a number of stone canals – an example of expert technology developed several centuries ago.

Day 4 – Anegondi and return to Bangalore

On the last day of our tour, we set off early in the morning to Anegonda, a 35km motorway, reluctantly giving up the possibility of crossing the river on caracals, which was handled by local fishermen. The proposed bridge, which is to connect the two villages, was stopped by UNESCO because, according to the rules of the World Heritage Council, there should be no modern construction on the heritage sites. Anegondi formed the northern outpost of the Vijayanagar Empire, and its once mighty fort is now destroyed. The main attractions of this village are the temple of Ranganata, Huchchappayana-Mata, Pampa-Saravara and Nava-Vrundavana.

The sprawling temple of Ranganata is located in the center of Anegondi, from where we visited Pampa Sarawara, a large body of water located among the rocky hills. A short trip to the doodles took us to Nawa Vrundavana, a highly revered temple that housed nine shrines dedicated to the seers of the Madhva (thirds) – Padmanabha, Kavindra, Vageesha, Govinda-vadiar, Vysaraya, Raguvariya, Srinivasa, Rama and Sudhendra – date from the 12th-16th centuries.

Returning from Nava Vrundavana on the doodle, the next stop was the hill of Anjanadra, about 6 km from Anegondi. This rocky formation, topped by the temple of Hanuman, presents an amazing visual appearance when viewed from Hampi. Surprisingly, the entire slide, including the temple, is ruled by impostors ganja smoking, Hindi language the garden he is the same godfather who continuously reads verses from Ramayana. The best feature of Anjanadra – a beautiful view of the surrounding area. Among the rough rocks the mighty Tungabadra flows calmly and gracefully, opening up fantastic views of sunset and sunrise.

On the way back to Bangalore the only stop on the way was to the Tungabhadra dam in Hospet, about 22 km from Hampi. It encloses a water area of ​​more than 400 square meters. Km, making it the largest multi-purpose dam in Karnataka, producing 27 MW of electricity annually, as well as watering several thousand hectares of land in the Belary, Raichur and Chitradurga areas. Recreation centers in the form of fountains, beautiful walks, a children’s play park, an aquarium and a musical fountain are also offered.

A four-day stay in the ancient ruins of Hampi allowed us to realize that in this World Heritage Site there is more than is usually depicted and promoted. Although the ruins occupy only 26 square meters. Km, in the list of monuments identified by ASI, there are more than 121 temples and other monuments that we have visited only a few. Enough reason to reconsider this psychologically elevated place of the ancient empire, which testifies to the architecture and urban planning capabilities that we inherit.

Get there.

Hampi is located in central Karnataka and is well connected by rail, road and air.

Railway. The nearest railway line is Hospet, from where you need to drive another 15 km on the road.

The road. Regular bus services are provided from Bangalore to Hospet 15 km from Hampi.

Air. Bellary (74 km) – the nearest airport; other convenient airports are Belgaum (190 km) and Bangalore (353 km).

The best time to visit Hampi is from September to February. The summer months can be quite unpleasant when the temperature rises above 380 C.


Hampi offers several hotels with basic amenities apparently Hotel Mayura Vijayanagar, Pampa Lodge, Naga Lodge, among others, cost in the range of 60-150 rupees per night.

There are many hotels in Hospet that offer the best services. Hotel Malligi (Rs 140-700 per night), Priadorshy (RUS 140-500), among others.

Food in Hampi. Many small eateries and cafes line the road in the main market area for every taste and season – South Indian, North Indian, Chinese, Tibetan, Italian – and include ice cream parlors, fresh fruit stalls, etc. This is possible , because every second traveler for Hampi is a foreigner.

Hampi Festival. Every year in November, the State Corporation for the Development of Tourism in Karnataka (KSTDC) organizes a large Hampi Utsava Street to attract visitors to this remote area. This year’s festival is scheduled for November 3-5.

Tips for travelers

The heat. Hampi is a hot space. There is little shelter in its vast territory, except for a few trees and the ruins themselves. Even in winter the afternoon is very hot. A bottle of water, a sun cap or an umbrella are desirable paraphernalia when exploring Hampi.

Cancer. Tungabhadra is treacherous and should be avoided except for good swimmers. As the river flows over rocky and boulder-covered terrain, judging the depth is difficult and underwater, the rocks are slippery.


Beautiful, bold Bagan

In the central region of Mandalay in Myanmar you can now visit the ancient city of Bagan. For years, Myanmar has certainly been a closed, closed country, but after government changes it receives many tourists annually. The city of Bagan has been here since the ninth century, and in the midst of its power between the eleventh and thirteenth centuries, up to ten thousand temples, monasteries and pagodas were built here. Over the years, many have fallen and many have disappeared altogether. However, two thousand two hundred and twenty-nine remain, making it one of the most exciting places to visit in all of Southeast Asia.

The flight to Bagan early in the morning offers a magnificent view of the temples, peering into the fog covered with greenery. It is a very magnificent area and the whole city is full of green trees and shrubs. The spiers of the stupa pierce the sky at every turn. This is an amazing landscape. The rich red soil contrasts perfectly with the greenery and stone work of the temples.

Unfortunately, Bagan is in the earthquake zone and they caused a lot of damage. The last major one was in 1975, when more temples were damaged, including the famous Bupaya, which was nearly destroyed. The military was brought into action, and during the 1990s many damaged buildings were rebuilt. The work was done unsatisfactorily, modern materials were used, and the troops paid little attention to the original architecture. This has provoked widespread condemnation and may be responsible for the fact that the city has not been granted UNESCO World Heritage status, despite numerous statements by the Myanmar government.

Sadly it has not been fixed, it is a wonderful city that still deserves a place in any tourist route. Last year, a third of a million people visited Myanmar, and the vast majority of them included Bagan on the trip. Myanmar is the fastest growing holiday destination in Southeast Asia, and Bagan is one of the biggest attractions. Being in the dry zone of the country, it has good weather all year round. The temperature remains high and is over 30º C all year round. Although between February and May it is more[ptionalionalhotattemperaturesabove35°C[ptionallyhotatover35ºC[ptionalionalгарачыпрытэмпературыбольшза35°C[ptionallyhotatover35ºC

The city is great for visiting your holiday in Myanmar. 430 miles north of Yangon and 180 miles south of the glorious city of Mandalay, it offers the perfect stopping point when traveling between the two cities. The city is a really great place for travelers to see great examples of the two main styles of temple design. A steppe is a high spire that usually contains a relic or a body. The hollow style of the temple, known as Gu, is used for meditation and worship.

Bagan is completely unique, no other city in the region offers the visitor so many temples and so much cultural history. It competes with Angkor Wat for its religious and cultural significance.


Why Isfahan is half the world – studying the magic of Iran

Iran was once a popular travel destination for Westerners. Many will be surprised to learn that travelers who still visit the country return safely, having a great time.

Yes, there have been demonstrations and at the governmental level hostile words, but the average Iranian you meet while traveling is warm, open and very friendly. Iran is home to much of our culture, and today it still offers amazing cultural and personal experiences.

Yes, you will need a visa, but for most citizens it can be obtained at the airport upon arrival. For those traveling with a UK or US passport, it is required to book a group tour or at least apply for a visa at one of the local travel companies. For the brave it is possible to travel independently from countries outside the UK and US.

Iran is well served by a bus network, and both trains and domestic flights are possible. Outside of Tehran and Isfahan they speak English, so hiring a guide makes a lot of sense. They are relatively inexpensive. Having said that, the group tour also has something to offer.

Iran is an Islamic country and has a strict dress code that visitors must follow. This is especially difficult for women who have to be in closed hats, arms and legs while in public. Men need long sleeves and pants. Westerners are welcomed in most cities, but caution should be exercised in the very conservative religious cities of Qom and Mashhad.

Tehran has little to offer other than the Grand Bazaar and the marvelous jewelry museum, but it is done in the cities of Isfahan (also spelled Esfahan), Shiraz and Yazd.

Shiraz and Yazd are worth a day or more, and the ruins of the ancient city of Persepolis 70 kilometers from Shiraz – one of the most dramatic ruins in the world. Shiraz has beautiful gardens and an interesting mosque lined with mirrors. In the Ride there are winding alleys, a tower and bicycle houses. This is the best place to study Zoroastrian culture. Take a look at Amir Chakhmak’s impressive three-story high complex – with its rows of perfectly placed alcoves. If you have time, the Water Museum in Yazd has the most interesting exposition of underground water canals called quanta.

Isfahan is a relatively compact city, where most of the main attractions are within walking distance. It is really impressive and some say it is the most beautiful city in the world. The main attractions: the Imam Mosque, the Palace of Ali Kapu, the Mosque of Sheikh Lotf Allah and the entrance to the Grand Bazaar are gathered around a huge square of the Imam (Nagsh-Jahan). Once a military parade ground, a polo field and a horse track, now the central area is a water body, and dozens of shops surround the square.

Construction of the palace began in 1611. This is a great example of Islamic architecture at its peak. Its splendor is a seven-color mosaic tile covering the dome, and beautiful calligraphic inscriptions in various places. The front portal of the mosque is 27 meters high, and next to it are two minarets 42 meters high. Along with the 52-meter dome late in the day to the mosque with the tiles glistening under the south, is a scene you will remember for a long time.

If you see the appearance impressive, the beauty of the interior is breathtaking. Amazing tiles, plaster and other calligraphy along with dramatic patterns adorn the ceiling. Standing under the center of the dome, you can experience the most amazing acoustic properties of the dome design.

To the left of the square from the Imam Mosque is the majestic six-story Ali Kapu Palace. Built as a monumental gate, it also served as the residence of the Shahs.

You will need a good guide to fully understand this building, but undoubtedly the main thing – an elevated terrace with 18 slender columns. The view of the square for the Shah and his guests was probably a magnificent spectacle. Shah Abbas I and II ruled at the height of Persian culture.

On the other side of the square is Sheikh Lotfala’s smaller mosque, sometimes called the Women’s Mosque because it may have been built to serve as a place of worship for the harem harem. Built between 1602 and 1619 during the reign of Shah Abbas I, it differs from the Imam Mosque by its pale tones and quiet harmony. During the day the colors change from cream to pink at sunset. The arabesque pattern and floral design of the exterior panels are excellent. The portal is an example of magnificent stalactite art with a rich concentration of blue and gold motifs. This honey comb plaster forms small niches, nested in a geometric pattern, very pleasing to the eye. And again the interior is gorgeous, and the unusual design of mihab is the best in Iran.

Flash photography is prohibited inside, so bring a tripod for the camera.

Entrance fees apply to all of the above. A number of companies offer hiking tours. Check this out as they can be beneficial. Take water and take good walking shoes.

The gate of the Qeysarieh portal leads from the square directly to the Grand Bazaar. It is better to visit them in the morning, and trade is the busiest. The variety, smell, color and sounds of the bazaar will surprise you. Cheerful store owners love to showcase their wares. Bargaining is a move. Small items such as miniatures painted on one hair and tablecloths printed by hand, called qalamkar textiles, are inexpensive and easy to transport, however shopkeepers collect and ship larger items. If you use a credit card, check the fee.

Take some time to try one of the tea houses on the roof. Try a variety of teas by experiencing a bubbling bubble (smoking flavored tobacco through the tap). Explore some shops and teahouses that have converted caravanserais. It’s a return from the old Silk Road when trade was at its height.

Other attractions in Isfahan include the impressive Jama Mosque, which dates back to 771, the Chehelsotun Palace and the Kaju and Si-o-Se-Paul bridges. Check bridges late in the afternoon or early in the evening when they are lit.

Money can be a problem in Iran. Very few ATMs take western cards. The local currency is the rial, but the term Toman is sometimes used. Toman is 10 riyals. Instead, always ask for or wear US dollars or euros. The best way to get local currency is to use private money exchange offices (not black markets). A conversion chart or calculator helps if you are serious about shopping.

In Isfahan, many tourist hotels – from hostels to the luxury hotel Abbasi. Buy at the best prices. This hotel has many different types of rooms and prices. It has a great backyard setting and is worth checking out.

So is Isfahan “half a word”? Well, you have to go there for yourself before you can make a decision.

We thought it happened during our great trip to Central Asia, written in the book The Silk Road of Marco Polo.


The Feast of the Assumption in Mallorca is perfect for a Spanish break

British holidaymakers annually gather for summer vacations on the Spanish island of Mallorca, and this is not surprising – the largest of all the Balearic Islands is famous for the brilliant combination of relaxing sunbathing and cultural recreation that it offers visitors.

With the chance to stay in your own luxury villa in Mallorca, as well as the opportunity to soak up the sun and go to traditional Spanish events, you will find it difficult to find anywhere more ideal for a holiday.

During August, the whole of Spain celebrates one of the most important dates in the Catholic calendar – the Feast of the Assumption. The day falls on August 15 and is said to be the day when the Virgin Mary came to the end of her earthly life and ascended to heaven.

So, August 15 is a huge day all over Spain, and on the eve of this date a trip to the Mallorca holiday will surely give you the opportunity to witness how the locals love to celebrate. When the day is marked by the death of the Virgin Mary, many parades and carnivals that take place go to the beat of a slow drum.

However, there are still a few increased rates and you are sure to find something fun to entertain you on this day. From traditional dances to performances by bands and singing – on August 15, the whole island is shrouded in songs and dances, and it’s a great way for visitors to get under the skin of culture.

The date is a public holiday in Spain and so you can expect some of Mallorca’s major cities to be busy. To avoid the crowds, you can head out early in the morning or later when many Spaniards take the fiesta as an afternoon break.

Being the main center of all religious activities on the island, the statue of the cathedral in the capital of Mallorca Palma is definitely worth a visit here. On August 15, a number of specially thematic services may emerge that may appeal to those seeking to gain a full understanding of this important event. If going to one of the services is not your business, a visit to the cathedral is still not to be missed.

This impressive building dates back to the 12th century and is a fine example of the style of Gothic architecture. The main part of the church has an amazing 121 meters in length and 55 meters in width, which makes it a truly spectacular view. On the outside the church is a beautiful structure and definitely deserves to be done quickly.

One of the most famous elements of the Cathedral of Palm – its high belfry, which is more than 50 meters high. The tower has nine huge bells, one of which is especially famous for its size. This bell, called N’Eloy, has a massive two meters in diameter and weighs a staggering 4,517 pounds.

In addition to the bell tower, the cathedral has a number of smaller chapels that offer visitors peace and quiet, as well as the opportunity to think quietly.

As in many other religious states, there are rules you must follow when visiting a place of worship in Spain, such as dress codes that you must follow to avoid delinquency. To prevent this from happening, make sure your shoulders are covered and your shorts or skirts are below your knee.

After enjoying all that the Feast of the Assumption has to offer, you can fantasize while lying on the beach and get the most out of your holiday – and you will really be spoiled by the choice of where to relax in Mallorca. The island has a huge number of beaches, so you only need to decide which beach day you like.

Some of them are best for those who just want to cool off, while lovers of water sports or those who are vacationing in Mallorca with their children, can go to one of the busiest and busiest beaches on the island.


Assisi by Norman McCaig – Literature Review

A poem that explores an important topic Assisi Norman McCaig. The reader finds himself in an awkward table where the themes of hypocrisy and corruption inherent in the affect of religious piety are drastically alleviated. Written in the poetic form of free verse, the poet bypasses the traditional form of rhyme and rhythm in an attempt to develop this idea of ​​corruption. Due to the careful choice of words and clear imagery, the poet vividly reflects the duality of man and the social dichotomy of wealth and poverty.

The poet immediately introduces this section through the title. Ambiguously referring either to the city of Assisi or to St. Francis of Assisi Assisi hints at both. The city of Assisi is known to be adorned and grand; the house is of magnificent architecture and is associated with great wealth. On the contrary, St. Francis of Assisi dedicated his life to the poor and gave up his aristocratic wealth for the sake of monastic life, symbolizing great poverty. Thus, a title consisting of a single word, even before being aware of the situation with the poem, is skillfully used by McCaig to introduce the theme of hypocrisy.

This theme along with corruption in the modern Church develops throughout the verse. Assisiit is the story of a deformed dwarf sitting near the church of St. Francis. While the priest conducts the tour with the tour, the dwarf sits on the street, praying: a subtle reference to the social gap. Through the personification of these characters, McCage develops major themes.

In the first stanza McEig presents the dwarf as a pitiful figure, describing his hands as “in the opposite direction”. Both literally and metaphorically reflects the uselessness of the dwarf, the next line “sat down like a half-filled bag” develops this idea. Judging by the lack of rigidity, the resemblance evokes the image of a deformed and deformed dwarf, while hissing is used by MacCaig to heighten the reader’s sense of insecurity.

The pitiful image of the dwarf is expanded in lines ‘tiny twisted legs from which / sawdust can escape’. In fact, only in these two lines does McCage use many techniques to develop an image of the dwarf’s insignificance: a lexical choice. “twisted ‘, which not only suggests pain and functional incompetence, but has connotations of inversion and depravity, which also brings us closer to the central theme of the poem; the use of consonance on a solid “t” used to enhance an emotional anxiety response; and tying on “Sawdust”emphasizing his objectification of the dwarf. The metaphor is extended to the previous line and is intended to discredit the dwarf, characterize him as an insensitive article and deprive him of human quality.

The dry sarcastic tone is adopted by McCaig in the next line. He describes “built three tiers of churches” to show how complex the Church is, and to emphasize the irony of such a pitiful being who is in such a grand setting. We are also told that the church is built “In honor of St. Francis”. St. Francis was a humble man who would not care that rich cathedrals were built in his name. He has surrendered such riches to help people like the dwarf, so the fact that he sits on the street hungry and lean is deeply ironic. To emphasize this the poet uses other techniques. For example, the finish of this line emphasizes the large scale of the building. Similarly, MacCaig changes the expected syntax of the last line of this sentence “Not yet to be dead” to emphasize the irony. This inversion also reflects inequality and injustice while reinforcing a frustrating tone.

In the second stanza we met a priest who was conducting a tour of Giotto’s frescoes inside the church. This is poignant because it illustrates the widespread corruption in the Church. The frescoes were originally commissioned to teach poor stories from the Bible. У Assisi, they are used as a source for capital, not for spiritual development as was their original purpose. The role of the priest has been shifted from the role of a spiritual guide to the role of a guide, and McCague uses a self-deprecating tone in this stanza to emphasize perceptible hypocrisy. He also expresses his contempt for social duality; that great wealth and great poverty often coexist. This is evident from the lines “… I understood / explanation and / intelligence”. Mankaig here very effectively uses the ensemble, showing his contempt for the neglect of the priest and, consequently, for the neglect of society.

In the final sentence MacCaig uses other methods to study the main topics. First, he uses the extended metaphor of the priest as a farmer. He describes Fr. “hurry up” tourists “happy to click”. Words “hurry up” means a lack of reflection, assuming that tourists are unaware of the irony of the situation. The use of alliteration and anatomy hints that tourists are as simple-minded and unreasonable as chickens. The metaphor expands by describing tourists as “flutter”, creating the image of them who blindly follow the priest without knowing any hypocrisy. It also uses a different trick used by MacCaig to display basic themes: “… as he scattered the grain of the word”. This corruption of the phrase used in the Bible is intentionally intended to reflect the corruption of the values ​​of the Church. It also reflects that, according to the poet, the priest has forgotten about his spiritual duties, and the tone is quite shameful.

At the end of the poem McCague further shows his disgust and sense of injustice. He tells us “it’s they passed / destroyed the temple outside.” Words “they” conveys an accusatory tone. The group could not notice the suffering of the dwarf, too absorbed and shallow to understand how hypocritical they were: it is here that we learn that the poet is repulsed by this situation. Comparison “destroyed temple” conveys a powerful message. The words “destroyed“symbolizes the broken appearance of a dwarf, as opposed to the word”temple“symbolizes the perfect and sacred interior of the dwarf, that is, his humanity.

The image of the dwarf in this last stanza is particularly sharp and successfully unites the main themes of the poem. MacCaig, very harshly, further describes the appearance of the dwarf: “… whose eyes / cried pus, his back was higher / than his head, whose mouth …”). This cruel display of a dwarf is used to create a certain effect: to shock the reader and feel his regret; in fact, we are challenged to keep it. In the final lines of the poem McCague returns humanity to the dwarves, revealing its inner beauty. Comparison “… the voice is sweet / like a child when she talks to her mother / or a bird when he talks to St. Francis” very clearly reflects the purity and innocence of the dwarf. The tone also reflects pure injustice and unnecessary pain, which obviously make up most of the gnomes ’lives. Why should his sufferings go unnoticed?

Through a variety of methods, MacCaig successfully engages our sympathy, and thanks to research topics such as corruption and hypocrisy, we are forced to ask what it means to be human. The duality of man is revealed through both characters. A priest may be a man who serves God, but the role he performs serves only capitalism. The broken dwarf is also whole – deformed to the world, but perfect to God. Through the structure of the poem we observe these two lives as separate, but McCague reports an absolute synonym. So we have Assisi: a poem of conscience.