How art reflected the philosophy of the ancient Egyptians

Egypt is proud to be the first center of civilization on the African continent since 5000 BC. The country is located along the banks of the Nile in northeastern Africa. Egypt housed one of the most powerful and enduring civilizations in the ancient world. This great ancient state made high use of various arts, revealing their profound philosophies of life. These philosophies were embedded in their strict and compact religious beliefs, chief among which was the belief in life after death. Due to this, people practiced the cult of death, where art was used in the main way.

Egyptian art was made specifically to serve the dead. For the ancient Egyptians, death was not the end, but the transition from the land of the living (physical world) to the land of the dead (spiritual / metaphysical world). The Egyptians believed that if they died, their souls (Ka) would continue to live in another world but in the same bodies. Therefore, to ensure a successful journey to the land of the dead and the afterlife, the deceased had to be physically stored along with earthly possessions and other reminders of daily activities.

To achieve this philosophy, the ancient Egyptians carefully treated their dead bodies, called mummies, and embalmed them to protect them from rot. Works of art were to accompany the deceased into eternity. Thus, Egyptian art is the art of permanence, so Egyptian art is popularly called “the art of eternity.” Thin linen strips were used to wrap the bodies of the dead. Sometimes the resemblances of missing corpses are carved out of imperishable or durable materials such as granite, gold and precious stones to replace them. Wrapping the body of the deceased (mummy) with linen material, it was painted in bright colors and placed in the tomb. These architectural structures, known as pyramids, were built of heavy stones. It helped prolong their lives forever. Egyptian tombs were built in order to ensure the happy afterlife of the deceased, and paintings, sculptures and other objects in them had an eternal purpose.

The interior of these pyramids was lavishly decorated with a series of paintings depicting the journey of the dead into the metaphysical world. Other themes for painting included hunting people and feasting. Funeral texts, which were believed to preserve the name of the deceased and the requests of the gods for his well-being, were also written in hieroglyphs. This graphic art told of the good deeds of the deceased, including his titles and awards received during his lifetime.

Thus, the ideologies of the Egyptians regarding the afterlife, which is part of their philosophy, manifested themselves in works of art – painting, sculpture, architecture and textiles. This should inform today’s scholars about the necessary role art can play in the development of society and sustainable development. Modern scholars should not dissuade art as silent in philosophy because of their picturesque nature. Rather, they should seek to explore how to implement works of art in the transmission of philosophy or deep thought, as illustrated by the basic example of the ancient Egyptians.


Tourism in Rameshwaram – Jotirling of Lord Shiva (Rameshwaram Treasure Study)

Rameshwaram is undoubtedly one of the largest religious centers in southern India for both Shaywi and Vaishnava sects of Hinduism. This is the same place where Lord Rama (incarnation of Vishnu) conveyed gratitude to Lord Shiva for his success in Lanka.

In the heart of Rameshwaram is the famous Romanatwaswami temple, one of India’s most popular temples, representing the true essence of India in the form of a small miniature in which worshipers include everyone from the metropolitan to people dressed in ethnic clothing. distant villages of India.

Location and history: – This revered pilgrimage city is located on an island in the Gulf of Manar and, importantly, is well connected to the mainland in Mandapa by one of the greatest technological wonders of the country – the Indira Gandhi Bridge, which opened in 1988. The charming city was once prosperous ferry point, an important link between India and Sri Lanka, but slowly services were stopped when in Sri Lanka things stopped working.

Tourism in Rameshwaram: –

Ramanathaswamy Temple: – To capture the marvelous charm of this incredible temple city, visit the famous Ramanathaswamy Temple. Entertain yourself with photography in and around the temple, appreciating its exquisite architecture, presenting the best example of the Dravidian style of artistic and cultural development. The temple dates back to the 12th century AD, recognized for its breathtakingly decorated sculptures and corridors with intricate designs and carvings. The temple is only open to Hindus.

Kothandaramaswamy Temple – Dhanushkadi: – Dhanushkadi is another fabulous ancient temple located in the immediate vicinity of the city of Rameshwaram. The temple is named after Lord Rama’s bow – in Hindi known as Danush. The main attraction of the region is its location, surrounded by sea water (Gulf of Bengal and Indian Ocean) on all four sides. If you look at the region from above by helicopter, the sea reflects the shape of a bow and arrow. The head of the arrow is a sacred place for Hindus and is worshiped by pilgrims from afar. The temple celebrates the presence of God Rama and is a must visit for followers of God Rama.

Adam’s Bridge: – Tourism in Tamil Nadu gives you a unique opportunity to see another interesting place in Rameshwaram, known as Adam’s Bridge. reefs, islets and sand mounds


Ancient and modern Delhi

A thousand years of history can be found in Delhi, the capital of India and its third largest city. Located in the north, where the country narrows between Pakistan in the west and China and Tibet in the east, Delhi was the capital of Muslim India from the 12th to the 19th centuries. Historically, it was the center of vital trade routes and occupied a strategic position at the gates to the fertile plain of the Ganges – the social, religious and cultural life of India.

Now there are two cities of Delhi – New and Old. At least eight cities have been recorded at and around this place, the oldest being Indraprostha, which existed from the 3rd to the 4th century BC. There are many legends regarding the founding of the city and some archaeological dates regarding its age. Tomar Rajput founded and fortified the walls of Gilik, the first of the medieval cities, in the 9th century AD. E. And were overthrown in the 12th century by the Kaahas of Jaipur, who built a second defensive wall. The Turkish invaders in 1193 ended the rule of the Hindus and began a new Islamic era of the city. The following cities were annexed to the most ancient. Shah Jahan, the famous creator of the Taj Mahal, was in charge of the seventh Delhi, which he called Shahjahanabad. It was the capital of the Mughals until 1857. As powerful power diminished to replace the power of the British East India Company, Delhi lost its prestige and became another provincial city.

In 1911, the British chose Delhi as the capital, handing over the headquarters of the vice-regal from Calcutta. Plans to build New Delhi south of Shahjahanabad soon began, and Edwin Luthien and Herbert Baker, two British architects, were hired for his project. The center of the plan consisted of the Rashtrapati Bhavan or Vice-Regal Lodge (now the presidential residence), the House of Parliament, the secretariats, the memorial arch and the Connot Circus. The city was designed to combine the European style of the Renaissance and the East to provide a sweet-sounding garden for colonial rulers, but after Independence in 1947 the city began a surge of both horizontal and vertical growth and now includes all old cities, continuing to expand as it grows. population.

Due to its long history, numerous rulers and religions, Delhi is a paradoxical city. Within it are many of the oldest and most revered buildings and monuments in India, illustrating all stages of its development, as well as a bustling modern metropolis with almost six million people.

Red Fort

On the west bank of the Euman River, on the eastern perimeter of the walled city of Delhi, stands the Red Fort. A residence and administrative center, it was built from 1639 to 1648 under the supervision of two architects. It is a formidable war-like structure with octagonal and round bastions and two symmetrical watchtowers that overlook the red sandstone walls that surround the irregular octagon of 3,200 by 1,600 feet and reach 100 feet in height. It is surrounded by a deep moat that flows from the river to the east. Of the original five, only two large gates remain – the Lahore Gate (main entrance) on the west wall and the Delhi Gate on the south.

Inside the Gate of Lahore is an arcade of shops called Chata Chauk, which originally housed the Shah Jahan Court. In addition, there is a House of Drums, or Hatsipol, a parking lot for visitors. The intricate carving on the sandstone is typical of the late Mughal and was originally painted in gold and bright colors. Much of the original structure of the inner fort was destroyed, especially during the Indian Mutiny in 1857, and lawns and gardens are now replacing galleries built inside the walls.

The public audience hall, located between the courtyard and the royal palaces, was the administrative center of the capital, but it was also the predominant exhibition. Much of his luxury needs to be imagined now, but a marble throne with a marble inlay in the classical style still remains. Six miniature palaces stood along the east wall of the fort and contained apartments for the royal house, including the harem. They were connected by the Stream of Paradise, a small canal with fragrant waters, Nahri Bakhisht. Five of the gem-like buildings remained intact. Along the east wall, but secluded behind a sandstone wall, are the royal baths, which overlook the pearl mosque built by Aurangzeb. The outer walls are aligned with the walls of the fort, but the inner walls are at an angle so that they are properly aligned to Mecca.

The life-giving gardens were originally located north of the mosque, were designed to mimic paradise gardens and contained pavilions, fountains and plants in an official manner. Silver swings were hung on silk cords in pavilions so that courtiers could sit and watch the rains during the Hindu festival of the Taj, which marks the onset of the monsoon.


Taj Mahal – “Crowned Palace”

Probably the most recognized structure in the world, as well as one of the most beautiful, graceful lines of the Taj Mahal is one of the many architectural beauties attributed to Shan Jahan, which brought it worldwide recognition.

Built in memory and anchored by his first wife Mumtaz Mahal, the building was started after her death in 1631. An influential and beloved companion and adviser, Mumtaz Mahal has always consulted on public affairs and was in fact the one who put the royal seal on official documents. She died during the birth of their fourteenth child and, unfortunately, she was mourned by her husband, who, being a widower, drastically changed his lifestyle. He handed over much of the responsibility for government functions and military efforts to his sons and devoted his energies to a vital interest in architecture.

From a young age, when he remodeled his apartments in Kabul with great skill and taste, Shah Jahan has always been actively involved in the impressive construction projects of his administration. He designed structures and scenery, made large-scale working layouts and managed the building. The experience prepared him well for what was to be his main achievement – the Taj Mahal. There was much speculation about who might be the architect, and a variety of people were suggested, from a Venetian jeweler to a Turk named Usted Isa Afandi (a former student of Sinan, the most famous Turkish architect) and an Indian from Lahore named Usted Ahmad. However, it is likely that while many architects, artisans and craftsmen contributed to the construction and modification, the concept and management structure was in Shah Jahan. Style is a synthesis of existing features of Mughal architecture. The use of gardens and stone streams is reminiscent of the style common in Kabul used by Babur. Thin minarets and marble inlays are visible on other tombs such as Akbar, while the inflated dome and arched alcoves are Persian in style. The Taj Mahal is considered to be the epitome of Mughal architecture.

Work on the project progressed so well that until 1643 the annual memorial service of Mumtaz-Mahal was held within its walls, although ten more years passed before the completion of the complex. The builders and designers of the Taj Mahal were familiar with the rules of perspective and successfully incorporated many features that enhanced the symmetry and sophistication of the design through optical illusion. Although the height and width of the building are equal, the appearance is towering. Reflections in the water add to this illusion, while rows of cypress and evergreen plants emphasize the perspective.

Built of white marble, the exterior cladding of the main octagonal structure is adorned with a stone-carved verse of the Qur’an. Designed and executed by the Persian Amat Khan Shirazi, the most talented calligrapher of the empire, the decorative works are further enhanced by panels with floral patterns in a realistic style, geometric patterns and graceful arabesques. The base is also white marble measuring 300 feet, and inside are mosaics inserted with semi-precious stones. The central chamber stands above the burial vaults and houses two cenotaphs surrounded by openwork alabaster screens, also decorated with semi-precious stones. The interior during the day is illuminated by diffused light, filtered through a translucent alabaster dome and intricately perforated window screens of the same material.

The terrace surrounds the main structure and is protected at every corner by a thin, gracefully proportioned minaret 133 feet high, which lends balance and sophistication to the massive central building. The rectangular lake in the foreground serves as a reflective surface and increases perspective. The Taj Mahal is reminiscent of exquisite two-dimensional Persian and Mughal miniatures depicting the ethereal palaces of fairy tales, while its size, architectural complexity and scientific accuracy of perspective and symmetry have made it fascinate and delight all who visit it.

Jaipur, “Pink City”

The pink city of Jaipur in Rajasthan was built in 1728 by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singham II. From the beginning it was not pink. It was painted in the traditional greeting color in honor of Prince Albert, the wife of Queen Victoria, who visited in 1883. The city is an eclectic mix of Hindu, Mughal, Persian and Jain styles. It replaced the old amber capital, which was more vulnerable to attacks. It was located on a network of eight squares around the central square, which housed the palace and office buildings. To the north of the central block was Brahmapura (City of God), the home of priests and scholars, which was protected by gardens and lakes. The northwestern quadrant was actually a hill from which Nahargarh, or Fort Tiger, overlooked the city and defended it. From this point of view, the layout of the city is clearly visible. The streets are arranged in perfect proportions, the main thoroughfares are 108 feet wide (Hindu holy number) and are reduced depending on usage. Normalization of the sizes of shops, wide equal sidewalks, houses of equal height (in half of width of the street) give to a city a graceful, elegant look. Deep stone awnings protect the facades of shops from the relentless sun and create a pleasant atmosphere for viewing.

A bustling commercial hub, Jaipur is reminiscent of the ancient Middle East, about people simply from the “Arab Nights”. Many women’s jewelry represents the wealth of the family and can be very huge. This is one of the last strongholds of the practice of sati – the custom of Indian wives engaged in the burial of their husbands. Although it has been illegal since 1829, a recently recorded case was in 1980 and received considerable support from local women.

Fatehpur Sikri, “City of Victory”

For four hundred years, pilgrims, both Hindus and Muslims, visited the tomb of Sheikh Salim Krishti in Fatehpur Sikra. It was built by the Mughal emperor Akbar in honor of the Muslim mystic, who, assuring him of the absence of heirs, is not eternal, promised the emperor not one but three sons. When the first of these sons was born the following year, a large mosque and a new capital were built in Sikr in honor of this event, and when the sheikh died in 1572, a mausoleum was added here.

Akbar’s condition changed for the better, and the following year he managed to conquer the vast kingdom of Gujarat in the west. To commemorate this achievement, he built the largest gate in India 176 feet high to adorn his new Victory City. This city became a central center for the residence of artists, artisans, soldiers and priests – a huge population that directly or indirectly works for the comfort and beauty of the emperor.

During 1584, just fourteen years after the grand opening of the new capital, Akbar left one of his expeditions to the north and never returned to stay. The reason for this refusal is unknown, although theories have been put forward – the lack of water and the ingrained nomadic instincts of the two people, but the mysterious abandoned city keeps its secrets. Failures are collapsing, farm animals graze and peck in the ruins. All signs of human habitation are gone; the numbers do not provide information about the people who lived there, courtiers, five thousand wives and nobles – they all disappeared without a trace.

A thousand elephants and a huge army were here and led them on numerous invasions, often not as bloody as those of the emperor’s ancestors, and the share of the conquered often improved considerably after the conquest. Akbar was an experienced administrator, an innovator and much earlier – his mail system of runners could deliver a letter 78 miles a day. His justice was swift, and the punishment was tailored to the crime. It was believed that torture provided the truth in the evidence, while the executions were carried out only after a few days of trial. The food was sumptuous, the chief could count forty dishes served on Chinese porcelain each day (according to legend, this magnificent dish would break in the presence of poison). The water from the Ganges, sent in closed jars, was the only drink the emperor drank.


Madhya Pradesh, the geographical depth of India, is primarily a country with high plateaus. In a remote corner of this state, far from the broken road, lie the most unusual attractions of the state – the temples of Khajuraho. Stunning examples of Indo-Aryan architecture, these buildings are adorned with beautifully crafted stone carvings, primarily celebrating sexual pleasures. This Kamasutra, carved in stone, commemorates the beauty of the “heavenly girls” of gods and goddesses as well as real and mythological animals.

Built during the Chandala period, the temples date back to a centuries-old surge of creativity that lasted from 950 to 1050 AD. E. It still remains a mystery why these huge structures were built in this isolated place, which, as far as can be determined, was never a settlement and is not a comfortable place to live because of the long, hot and dry season. It is also the subject of intense speculation as to where the workforce came from to implement such a monumental construction project in just a hundred years. One of the advantages of choosing a place appeared a few years later, when due to its remoteness the temple of Khajuraho escaped the destruction of Muslim invaders, seeking to destroy all the “idolatrous” temples in India.

The temples of Khajuraha are built in three groups, with the largest and most important being in the western aviary, which is also the most well-kept. According to a plan that reflects small changes, each temple is approached through an entrance porch, an ardhamandapa, behind which is a hall or mandapa. Next is the main hall of Mahamandapa, surrounded by a corridor supported by pillars. The vestibule, antaraloa, leads to the inner sanctuary of the hunchback, where there is an image of the god-dedication.

The appearance of each building is impressive, as wave after wave of towers culminates in the rise of the sikhara, which reaches the top of the inner sanctuary. The baroque vertical line is offset by the decorated horizontal friezes of the sculpture, which form a carefully integrated element of the whole building.

Most of the temples are lined east-west and made of granite and sandstone. They lack the fenced walls of modern buildings elsewhere, but often had four smaller shrines at the corners, many of which have not survived. One of the best preserved of all the buildings is the Lakshmana temple in the western group. This temple was dedicated to Vishnu and is one of the earliest built on the site (between 930 and 950 AD).


One of the most important places of pilgrimage throughout India, Varanasi, the “Eternal City”, has been a center of learning and civilization for about 2000 years. Nearby, on the banks of the Holy Ganges, the Buddha first preached his message of enlightenment 25 centuries ago. From the 11th century, the city was often looted by Muslim invaders and later also became a center of Muslim worship. The tycoon emperor Aurangzeb destroyed most of the existing temples or turned them into a mosque.

Throughout its history, Varanasi has been called “Kashi” and “Benares”, and the current name translates as “City between two rivers”. Nestled among a poor, backward, agrarian and overcrowded area, it is a brilliant value of teaching and literature for Hindus and Sanskrit and one of the most beloved and auspicious places in all of India where one can go pious. to die. The many ghats that line the banks of the rivers are always crowded with pilgrims bathing in the murky waters of the Ganges in religious purification ceremonies.


The art of wildlife is its history and development


Some of the earliest of all known arts (prehistoric cave and rock art) have wildlife. However, this may be more properly seen as the art of food rather than the art of wildlife as such.

Then for most of the rest of the history of the Western world the art of depicting wildlife was largely absent due to the fact that during this period narrow views of reality, such as religion, predominated in art. More recently, when society and the art it produces are freed from such narrow worldviews, wildlife art thrives.

Wildlife is also a difficult subject for the artist, as it is difficult to find, and even more difficult to find in a still position, long enough to even make a sketch, let alone draw. Recent advances, such as photography, have made it much easier, and have been art forms in their own right. Thus, wildlife art is now much easier to implement both accurately and aesthetically.

In art outside the Western world throughout history wild animals and birds have been depicted much more frequently.

The art of wildlife began as a reflection of vital food sources back in prehistory. At the beginning of history the western world seems to have long been disconnected from nature, and this is reflected in the absence of wildlife art for most of art history. More recently, society and the art it produces have become much broader. Wildlife has become something amazing as new areas of the world have been explored for the first time, something to hunt for fun, aesthetically admire and preserve. These interests are reflected in wildlife art.

History and development of wildlife art …

The art of wildlife in prehistory.

Animal and bird art appears in some of the earliest examples of artistic creation, such as cave painting and rock art.

The earliest known cave paintings were made about 40,000 years ago, the Upper Paleolithic period. These works of art can be more than a decoration of living quarters, as they are often in hard-to-reach caves and show no signs of human habitation. At this time, wildlife was a significant part of people’s daily lives, especially in terms of food hunting, and this is reflected in their art. Religious interpretation of the natural world is also considered an important factor in the reflection of animals and birds at this time.

Probably the most famous of all the cave paintings in Lascaux (France) includes an image of a wild horse, which is one of the earliest examples of wildlife art. Another example of cave painting is the deer in the Spanish cave of Cueva de las Monedas, probably painted around the last ice age. The oldest known cave paintings (perhaps about 32,000 years old) are also found in France, on the Chateau Chateau, and depict horses, rhinos, lions, buffaloes, mammoths and people who often hunt.

Wildlife painting is one of the most common types of cave art. Subjects are often large wildlife, including bison, horses, auros, lions, bears, and deer. People of this time probably treated the natural world mostly in terms of their own survival rather than separating themselves from it.

Cave paintings found in Africa often include animals. The cave paintings of America include animal species such as rabbit, cougar, lynx, deer, wild goat and sheep, whale, turtle, tuna, sardine, octopus, eagle and pelican, and are noted for their high quality and beautiful color. Rock paintings by Australian aborigines include so-called “X-ray” paintings depicting the bones and organs of the animals they depict. Paintings on caves / rocks in Australia include native species of animals, fish and turtles.

The branching of animals was also done during the Upper Paleolithic …, which are the earliest examples of wildlife sculpture.

In Africa, Bushman rock paintings around 8000 BC clearly depict antelopes and other animals.

The advent of the Bronze Age in Europe, beginning in the 3rd millennium BC, led to a specialized class of artisans, thanks to the beginnings of specialization that arose as a result of surpluses in these emerging societies. In the Iron Age, mythical and natural animals were a common item of artwork, often involving decorating items such as plates, knives and cups. Celtic influences influenced the art and architecture of the local Roman colonies and surpassed them, surviving the historical period.

Wildlife art in the ancient world (classical art).

It is believed that history begins at the time of the invention of writing. The earliest examples of ancient art come from Egypt and Mesopotamia.

Great artistic traditions originate in the art of one of the six great ancient “classical” civilizations: Ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Greece, Rome, India, or China. Each of these great civilizations has developed its own unique style of art.

In Chinese art, animals are usually depicted, including some examples from the 4th century that depict stylized mythological creatures and are thus rather a departure from the pure art of wildlife. The Chinese art of the Ming Dynasty has pure wildlife art including ducks, swans, sparrows, tigers and other animals and birds that increase realism and detail.

In the 7th century elephants, monkeys and other animals were depicted on stone carvings in Elora, India. These carvings were religious in nature, but depicted real animals rather than more mythological creatures.

Ancient Egyptian art includes many animals that were used in the symbolic and highly religious nature of Egyptian art at the time, but demonstrate significant anatomical knowledge and attention to detail. Animal symbols are used within the famous Egyptian hieroglyphic language of symbols.

Early South American art often reflects notions of the divine jaguar.

The Minoans, the greatest civilization of the Bronze Age, in their middle period created a naturalistic design including fish, squid and birds. Until the late Minoan period, wildlife was still the most characteristic object of their art, increasing the diversity of species.

The art of the nomadic people of the Mongolian steppes is primarily animal art, such as golden deer and usually small in size, which corresponds to their style of travel.

Aristotle (384-322 BC) proposed the concept of photography, but this was only put into practice in 1826.

Medieval period, from 200 to 1430

This period includes early Christian and Byzantine art, as well as Romanesque and Gothic art (from 1200 to 1430). Much of the art that has survived during this period is religious rather than realistic in nature. Animals in art at this time were used as symbols rather than representations of anything in the real world. Therefore, we can say that during this period there is very little wildlife art as such.

Renaissance Wildlife Art, 1300-1602.

This artistic movement began with ideas that originally appeared in Florence. After centuries of religious domination in art, Renaissance artists began to move more towards ancient mystical themes and reflect the world around them, far from purely Christian themes. New techniques, such as oil painting and portable paintings, as well as new ways of viewing, such as the use of perspective and realistic display of textures and lighting, have led to great changes in artistic expression.

The two main schools of Renaissance art were Italian schools that were heavily influenced by the art of ancient Greece and Rome, as well as northern Europeans … Flemings, Dutch and Germans, who were generally more realistic and less idealized in their work. Renaissance art reflects the revolutions in ideas and science that took place during this period of the Reformation.

In the early Renaissance, artists such as Botticelli and Donatello are represented. At this time, animals are still used symbolically and in a mythological context, such as Jacob de’Barbara’s “Pegasus”.

The most famous artist of the Renaissance is Leonardo da Vinci. Although most of his work depicts humans and technology, he sometimes incorporates wildlife into his images, such as the swan in “Ice and Swans,” and the animals depicted in “The Lady with the Ermine,” “Studies of Cat Movement and Position.”

Dürer is considered the greatest artist of the Northern European Renaissance. Albrecht Dürer was especially known for his wild paintings, including images of a hare, a rhinoceros, a bullfinch, an owl, a squirrel, the wing of a blue roller, a monkey and a blue crow.

The art of Baroque wildlife, from 1600 to 1730.

This important artistic epoch, encouraged by the Roman Catholic Church and the aristocracy of the time, has such famous great artists as Caravaggio, Rembrandt, Rubens, Velazquez, Poussin and Vermeer. The paintings of this period often use light effects to enhance the dramatic effect.

The wildlife of this period includes the lion and the “golden larva” of Karel Fabrito.

Melchior de Hondecoter was a specialist in the art of animals and birds in the Baroque era. The paintings included “Uprising in a Bird Coup”, “Rooster Fight” and “Amsterdam Palace with Exotic Birds”.

The Rococo period was a later (from 1720 to 1780) decadent subgenre of the Baroque period and included such famous painters as Canaletto, Gainsborough, and Goya. The wildlife of the time includes Jean Antoine Watteau’s “Dramatic Study” and Goya’s “Stupidity of the Beasts”.

Jean-Baptiste Udry was a Rococo wildlife conservationist who often painted royalties for royalties.

Around this time, the earliest scientific illustration of wildlife was created, for example, by the artist William Levin, who published a book illustrating British birds, completely hand-drawn.

Wildlife art in the 18th-19th centuries.

In 1743, Mark Catesby published documentation of the flora and fauna of the explored areas of the New World, which helped stimulate both business investment and interest in the continent’s natural history.

In response to the decline of the Rococo period in the late eighteenth century (1750-1830), neoclassicism emerged. This genre is more ascetic and contains much of the sensuality but not the spontaneity that characterizes the late period of Romanticism. This movement focused on the supremacy of the natural order over the will of man, the concept of which culminated in a romantic reflection of catastrophe and madness.

Francois Le Waylan (1769-1832) was a bird illustrator (and ornithologist) around this time.

Georges Cuvier (1769-1832) painted accurate images of over 5,000 fish concerning studies of the comparative biology of the organism.

Edward Hicks is an example of an American wildlife artist of this period, whose art was dominated by his religious context.

At this time Sir Edwin Henry Landser also painted wildlife in a style that strongly influenced the dramatic emotional judgments of the animal participants.

This orientation towards nature forced the painters of the Romantic era (1790 – 1880) to turn landscape painting, which was previously an insignificant form of art, into the most important art. The Romantics rejected the ascetic ideals of neoclassicism.

The practical use of photography began around 1826, although it took some time before wildlife became a common subject of its use. The first color photograph was taken in 1861, but easy-to-use color plates became available only in 1907.

In 1853, Bison and Mant created one of the first known wildlife photographs.

In France, Gaspar-Felix Turnach, “Nadar” (1820-1910), applied the same aesthetic principles used in painting to photography, thus beginning the artistic discipline of fine art photography. Fine art photographs were also reproduced in limited editions, making them more valuable.

Jacques-Laurent Agas was one of the most famous painters in Europe around the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th centuries. His art at the time was unusually realistic, and he painted some wild animals, including giraffes and leopards.

Romantic wildlife art includes “zebra,” “cheetah, deer, and two Indians,” at least two paintings by monkeys, a leopard, and “portrait of the royal tiger” by George Stubbs, who also made many paintings of horses.

One of the great wildlife sculptors of the Romantic period was Antoine-Louis Barry. Barry was also a painter who demonstrated typical dramatic concepts and coverage of the romantic movement.

Delacroix painted a tiger attacking a horse, which, as usual with romantic paintings, depicts objects on the border between man (domesticated horse) and the world of nature (wild tiger).

In America, the landscape painting movement of the Romantic era was known as the Hudson River School (1850s – c. 1880). These landscapes sometimes include wildlife, such as deer in Albert Birstadt’s “Dogwood” and “Yosemite Valley,” and, more obviously, in the “buffalo trail,” but the focus is on the landscape rather than the wildlife in it.

Wildlife artist Ivan Ivanovich Shishkin demonstrates the excellent use of light in his landscape-oriented wildlife art.

Although romantic painting focused on nature, it rarely depicted wild animals that were much more committed to the boundaries between man and nature, such as domesticated animals and people in landscapes rather than the landscapes themselves. Romantic art seems to speak of nature, but usually shows nature only from a human point of view.

Audubon was perhaps the most famous wild bird painter around this time, with a distinctive American style, but painted the birds realistically and in context, albeit in somewhat dramatic poses. Like birds, he also painted American mammals, although these of his works are somewhat lesser known. Around the same time in Europe Rosa Boncher gained fame as a wildlife artist.

Among the realistic art of “raven” Monet and “stags at rest” Rosa Boncher – a real wildlife art. However, in this artistic movement animals are much more often depicted as part of the human context.

The wildlife art of the Impressionist movement includes Theodore Clement Steele’s “Fisherman’s Prize,” and artist Joseph Crowhall was a wildlife art specialist heavily influenced by Impressionism.

At this time, an accurate scientific illustration of wildlife was also created. The name known for this work in Europe is John Gould, although most of the illustrations to his books on birds were made by his wife Elizabeth.

Post-Impressionism (1886 – 1905, France) includes water-bird in Rousseau’s “zealous serpent”, and Rousseau’s paintings, which include wildlife, are sometimes considered post-Impressionists (like the Fauvist, see below).

Fauvism (1904 – 1909, France) was often considered the first “modern” art movement to reinterpret the use of color in art. The most famous favist is Matisse, who depicts birds and fish in “polynesie la Mer” and birds in his “Renaissance”. Other wildlife art in this movement includes a tiger in Rousseau’s “Surprised! A Storm in the Forest,” a lion in a “sleeping gypsy” and jungle animals in his “exotic scenery”. Georges Braque depicts the bird in many of his works of art, including in “L’Oiseaux Bleu et Gris” and in “Astre et l’Oiseau”.

The production of ukiyo-e-printing (Japanese imprints of wooden blocks dating from the 17th century) became known in the West in the 19th century. And had a great influence on Western painters, especially in France.

Wildlife art in this genre includes several untitled prints (owl, bird, eagle) by Ando Hiroshige and Hokusai Katsushiki’s “Crane,” “Cat and Butterfly,” “Wagtail and Wisteria.”

Wildlife art in the 20th century, contemporary art, postmodern art, etc.

Changing from the relatively stable views of the mechanical universe that occurred in the 19th century, the 20th century destroys these views with advances such as Einstein’s psychological impact and Freud’s relatively psychological influence.

To a greater extent, contact with the rest of the world had a significant influence on Western art, such as the influence of African and Japanese art, such as Pablo Picasso.

American wildlife artist Carl Runguis covers the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. His style evolved from a brutally rendered scientific style, through Impressionism, to a more picturesque approach.

Залаты век ілюстрацыі ўключае ў сябе міфічную жывую прыроду “Жар-птушка” Эдмунда Дулака і “Дызайн кафлі Чапля і Рыба” Уолтэра Крэйна.

Птушак Джорджа Брака можна вызначыць як аналітычных кубістаў (гэты жанр быў сумесна распрацаваны Бракам і Пікаса з 1908 па 1912 гг.) (А таксама фавістам). Фернанд Легер таксама паказвае птушак у сваім “Les Oiseaux”.

Прыблізна ў гэты час была зроблена дакладная навуковая ілюстрацыя да дзікай прыроды, напрыклад, зробленая амерыканскім ілюстратарам Луісам Агасісам Фуертам, які маляваў птушак у Амерыцы, а таксама ў іншых краінах.

Экспрэсіянізм (1905 – 1930, Германія). “Фокс”, “малпавы фрыз”, “алень” і “тыгр” і г.д. Франц Марк адносяцца да мастацтва дзікай прыроды, хаця сучасным гледачам здаецца больш стылем, чым жывой прыродзе.

Постмадэрнізм як жанр мастацтва, які развіваўся з 1960-х гадоў, натхняецца на ўвесь спектр гісторыі мастацтва, у адрозненне ад мадэрнізму, які факусуецца на сваім абмежаваным кантэксце. Іншы, але звязаны погляд на гэтыя жанры заключаецца ў тым, што мадэрнізм спрабуе шукаць ідэалізаваную ісціну, калі постмадэрнізм прымае немагчымасць такога ідэалу. Гэта знайшло сваё адлюстраванне, напрыклад, у росце абстрактнага мастацтва, якое з’яўляецца мастацтвам нявызначанага, прыблізна пасля тысячы гадоў мастацтва ў асноўным выяўляе аб’екты, якія можна вызначыць.

Чароўны рэалізм (Германія 1960-х гадоў) часта ўключаў жывёл і птушак, але звычайна ў якасці другарадных элементаў сярод чалавечых элементаў, напрыклад, лебедзі і часам іншыя жывёлы ў многіх карцінах Майкла Паркеса.

У 1963 годзе Рэй Харм – значны мастак па птушках.

“Амерыканскі арол” Роберта Раўшэнберга, пап-арт (з сярэдзіны 1950-х гадоў на наступны момант), выкарыстоўвае вобраз арла як сімвал, а не як нешта сама па сабе, і, такім чынам, гэта не зусім мастацтва дзікай прыроды. Тое ж тычыцца “Матылькоў” любога Уорхала.

Сальвадор Далі, найбольш вядомы з мастакоў-сюррэалістаў (1920-я гады, Францыя і далей), выкарыстоўвае дзікіх жывёл у некаторых сваіх карцінах, напрыклад, “Пейзаж з матылькамі”, але ў кантэксце сюррэалізму выявы дзікай прыроды становяцца канцэптуальна чымсьці іншым, чым тое, што яны можа выглядаць візуальна, таму яны могуць быць зусім не дзікай прыродай. Іншыя прыклады жывой прыроды ў сюррэалістычным мастацтве – “Рэмі Магрыт”, “Прамэсэ” і “Сцэна лентэдра”.

Інфармацыйнае мастацтва (1964 г.), напрыклад, “Неба і вада” М. К. Эшэра, паказвае качак і рыб, а “мазаіка II” паказвае мноства жывёл і птушак, але яны выкарыстоўваюцца як элементы дызайну малюнкаў, а не мастацтва, звязанае з жывёламі.

Роджэр Торы Пітэрсан стварыў вытанчанае мастацтва дзікай прыроды, якое, хаця і ясныя ілюстрацыі да выкарыстання ў сваёй кнізе, якая стала першым сапраўдным палявым кіраўніцтвам па птушках, таксама з’яўляецца эстэтычна птушынай карцінай.

Маладыя брытанскія мастакі (1988 г.). Дэміен Херст выкарыстоўвае акулу ў акварыуме як адно з сваіх твораў. Спрэчна, ці можна разглядаць гэты кавалак жывой прыроды, таму што, хоць акула – гэта ў цэнтры ўвагі твора, гэта не зусім пра саму акулу, але, напэўна, пра ўплыў акулы на людзей, якія яе праглядаюць. Можна сказаць, больш выкарыстанне дзікай прыроды ў / як мастацтва, чым твор мастацтва жывой прыроды.

Мастацтва дзікай прыроды працягвае карыстацца папулярнасцю і сёння, калі мастакі, такія як Роберт Бейтман, вельмі высока цэняцца, хаця ў ягоным выпадку некалькі супярэчлівыя ў сувязі з яго выданнем гравюр з абмежаваным накладам, якія некаторыя крытыкі выяўленчага мастацтва шкадуюць.


The benefits of reading a crystal ball

The crystal ball is a very powerful divination tool used for viewing, and it is combined with Kabbalistic works to pass into the higher consciousness. These two are combined and you will be able to learn the essence of the principles of divination.

Use a crystal ball to define the tree of life

Each level of the tree of life had a specific symbolic image and voices attached to it. Some aspects of the spirit are heard at every level of the tree of life. If you are determining the information you would like to get from a specific level of the tree, then all you need is to harmoniously align the aspect and focus on viewing. For example, if you want to gain a deeper understanding of your spiritual journey, then you look into your crystal ball and develop a timbre with a bina. The messages sent will be specific to your tree.

Some balls work very well with a certain energy. Inexpensive different crystal balls that work in all ten levels. All ball sizes work from large marble to softball sizes. It can be quartz, clear lemon or rose, essentially any crystal will work as long as it is crystalline.

Crystal balls and how they affect our lives

Fortune tellers, seers, psychics, witches and wizards use crystal balls in their trade. They have the strength and ability to see into the future the past and present world of people. Religious clerics in Britain were the first to use balls in divination, so it is believed that the British promoted their use in divination. However, today they are used worldwide in entertainment, psychology psychology, traditional medicine and interior design.

Many designers have used beads in interior design in the 21st century. They were useful when choosing chandeliers to decorate balustrades and fixtures. Ball-like structures are placed in hotel lounges, counters, lobbies and garden counters. They are commonly used for deeper purposes than artistic ones.

Wizards use crystal balls for fun as props to perform and help them create illusions. Their clear transparent and bright nature gives an opportunity to look into the past and the future. In the Chinese community, crystal balls are used as elements to symbolize earth energies.

They are used to improve feng shui in Chinese families, and are valued by non-Chinese families to enhance family ties. They work according to their color size and are located in strategic locations. Crystal beads are also useful in psychology, promoting therapeutic relaxation and calm. No matter what purpose they are in our environment, they help humanity achieve a common goal.
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Modern science and technology dominate our lives and minds. However, these traditional practices are still useful and are passed down from generation to generation. The power to transform a business is not in your hands, but a little help from aids like crystal balls can’t be ignored.


Discovering Savoniard culture

If you want to go skiing, Les Menuires is the perfect place for both beginners and experienced fans. Its location in the beautiful Three Valleys makes it an accessible and pleasant place. From activities aimed at adults, to family entertainment, all this can be found here. From fun on the slopes to skiing, Les Menuires ensures that your holiday will be enjoyable.

In addition to skiing, Les Menuires also gives its visitors the opportunity to learn about the historical roots of the area. The culture of the people is obvious when you have the time and inclination to go to study. Behind the snow-covered slopes is a very clear legacy of Savoniard. You can explore this in several ways, starting with visiting the area’s local cultural centers.

Notre Dame de la Vie Nature Reserve

This charming church dates back to the 1500s, with renovations between 1633 and 1680. Nicholas Dash. It is dedicated to the life of the Blessed Mother Mary, whose miraculous statue was built for the house. Not far from Saint-Martin de Belleville and skiing in Le Menuire is still the site of many holy pilgrimages. Today it is the perfect place to attend concerts or just admire the architecture and art of the Baroque in the Savoniard style.

The church is built around a simple Greek cross, from which radiate four chapels. Inside, take the time to admire the frescoes depicting the ascension of Mary to the central dome of Nicholas Oder, whose work illustrates this period in the Tarentaiza Valley. The main altar part of this sanctuary was executed in 1686 by Jean-Marina Molina and has a gilded depiction of the life of Mary. There is also an altar dedicated to the apostles, completed in 1635. It is considered to be one of the oldest examples of this type of work in the region.

You can get to the sanctuary of Notre Dame de la Vie easily when in snow boots or skiing. Les Menuires information centers and facilities can provide information about this religious building as well as routes.

Church in the village of Saint Martin de Belleville (parish)

Also worth a visit is the parish church located in Saint Martin de Belleville. As in Notre Dame de la Vie, this village church is made in the Baroque Savoniard style. Of particular interest is the main altar, the decorative features of which include grape leaves and bunches of grapes on the columns.

Belleville Museum

The Belleville Museum is located in the heart of Saint Martin de Belleville, housed in a former outbuilding. It focuses on the agricultural history of the area, covering a period of 150 years, and shows the development of the rural community up to the 1960s and its changes through tourism. You can wander around the museum unaccompanied, and even if you don’t speak French, you can use headphones attached to the audio guide that explain the various exhibits and exhibits of the museum.

If you want to ski, Les Menuires is obviously a great choice, however keep in mind that this region offers so much more. If you take the time to explore the culture of the area, you will be able to truly appreciate its rich and diverse Savoniard heritage.


Qutub Minar – Tower of Power


Qutub Minar, made of red and coarse sandstone, is one of the tallest stone towers in the world. Built in the 13th century, the majestic tower stands in the Indian capital Delhi. Characterized by oppressive proportions, the tower has a diameter of 14.32 m at the base and about 2.75 m at the top with a height of 72.5 m and has 379 steps to the top. The architectural marvel of the medieval period was built in memory of the victory of the invading Islamic armies over the native Hindu rulers.

Like most monuments built during Muslim rule in India, Qutub Minar is housed in a complex consisting of other important monuments such as the iconic Kwawat-ul-Islam Mosque, Alai Darwaza, the tombs of important figures of the time such as Iltutmish, Ala -ud-din Hilji, Imam Zamin, who impresses with an iron pillar; unfinished competitor Qutub Minar – Alai Minar et al. Given its strategic status in Indian history, UNESCO has declared it a World Heritage Site.


Although a visit to the Qutub Minar complex is a must-visit for tourists, many do not understand its context. Perhaps this is one of the most important monuments, it symbolizes the continuity of the invaders in India, and the Minar is inevitably associated with the rise of Muslim rule in India. It was built to conquer and subdue the native population. As a visible and powerful symbol of power, it continues to play an axial role in the Indian political psyche.

Even before the arrival of the invaders Delhi had a long history. Remains found during archeological excavations in Delhi and adjacent regions have pushed their identification history back to the prehistoric period. Although happiness changes intermittently, the site seems to have been constantly populated from an early age. The most important reason for his fame was the association with the Indian epic Mahabharata. According to folk legends, the protagonists of the epic, including the protagonist Krishna and members of the Pandava family, lived here, in their fighters, the capital of Indraprostha. Until the early 20th century next to the Old Fortress or Purana Kila was a village of the same name. However, solid archaeological evidence confirming the presence of Indraprostha remains elusive. For ordinary like-minded people, evidence is an assumption. They believe it was the land where their Lord Krishna lived among mortals. It is the association itself that puts Delhi at a psycho-geographical crossroads in India.

There are various versions concerning the founding of Delhi, including the story of a king named Dill, who called this place “Dili” or Delhi. The most accepted version states that its founder was King Tomar Annalpol. Archaeological evidence suggests that the Tomar clan ruled the area with 700AD. They were stationed from Suraj-kunda, which is now in Haryana state. In Delhi, the rulers built a fort (naturally Hindu) called Lal Kot. Lal Kot stands for Red City, or Red Fortress. In medieval times, the Rajput clans fought among themselves for territory and northwestern India, including Aymer, Sambar, and the region that made up Delhi, came under the plot of the Chauhan (Chahaman) Rajput clan. The head of Pritviraj Chauhan ruled Delhi and its environs. Given the symbolic significance of Lalcott, Pritviraj expanded the fortress city and named new parts as Kuila-Rai-Pitor.

The area, consisting of Lalkat and Quila-Rai-Pitor, remained a symbol of the royal Hindu past. This direction was deliberately chosen by General Qutb-ud-din Aybak, who led the invasion on behalf of Mohammed Gori to build the Mosque of Islam Kwakwat-Ul- and Minar Qutub. The construction of these monuments and the presence in it of leaders of the invasion turned the wealth of Delhi and called it the basis of legitimate political power. Every sultan who came after Eibak wanted to own this land for political legitimacy. Most of them tried to leave behind organized permanent structures, mostly in the form of a city, including the last colonial group on Indian soil – the British. Only eight cities have been built in Delhi. They are:

(1) LALKOT and its annex of Kila-Rai-Pitor, built by the kings of Rajput.

(2) SIRI was built by Aladdin Hildy

(3) TUGHLAQABAD – built by Giyasuddin Tuglak

(4) JAHANPANAH, built by Muhammad bin Tuglak

(5) FEROZ SHAH KOTLA – built by Feroz Shah Tuglak

(6) PURANA QUILA – built by Sher Shah Sura

(7) SHAHJAHANABAD – built by the Emperor of the Great Maghal Shah Jahan (he was also the builder of the Taj Mahal)

(8) NEW DELHI – Built by the British


Power relations are ubiquitous in this world and such relations exist in all kinds. The main purpose of a “power relationship” is to acquire the ability of one subject to influence the behavior of another. The people chasing this force seem to be under extreme coercion. Political leaders have always used architecture to emphasize their power and defeat the masses, reminding them of the futility of revolting against imperial power. Monumental architecture involves deliberate play with solids and the emptiness of space planning to influence mass behavior. In earlier times this was one of the effective ways of controlling the state.

The role that architecture has played in public life throughout history, despite being revered by man either as a monument to an institution or an ideology, has always been a powerful symbol of wealth, status and power. From castles to cathedrals, from pyramids to palaces, architecture has been used effectively to somehow glorify the bustling ideal of the time. Visual stimuli always operate from a certain distance, and architecture requires sensory involvement, reflecting powerful visual images in the viewer’s mind, causing “sensory enhancement” to affect perception. Imagination as a dynamic phenomenon is a taxable concept and is influenced by both psychological and physical symbols. Innate in the tendency to change over time, perception can be actively influenced by architecture.

Colonial architectural monuments in India reveal the aesthetic preferences of the ruler, his aspirations and struggle for power and the material culture of society. The medieval architecture of India serves as an environment for understanding the constant struggle of a society that was divided by two opposing and strong religious and cultural forces: power and conquerors. These buildings were the result of complex totals, fundamentally motivated by religion, ideology and politics. These were spectacular manifestations of state manipulation of visual culture. The construction of monuments remained an important part of the political agenda of many conquerors. Formal architecture, such as mosques, tombs, palaces, fortresses, and utilitarian structures such as bridges, dams, etc., played an important role in uniting the land and its inhabitants under ever-changing dynasties. Spectacular buildings directly and indirectly serve the current dynasty in power. Triumphant structures such as Qutub Minar, built by the Victorious, testify to great military power. Most rulers who are Muslims had to emphasize their commitment to the principles of their religion to maintain the loyalty of their soldiers. Religion and politics, interconnected concepts, associations with power were an important rationale for the spread of mosques in India. The destruction of temples and the construction of mosques in their place was a clear indication of the ruler’s commitment to Islam. An analysis of medieval Indian architecture, including the Qutub Minar complex, shows how the organization of space and the location of buildings created an almost symbolic map of Islamic power.

Political context:

Although in earlier times the concept of political India did not exist, there were various factors, including geographical, cultural, religious, and political factors, that gave it a resemblance to unity, including a common religion. This subcontinent was ruled by both small and large rulers, whose writings were within their political boundaries. India was still rich, has a fragmented political landscape, making it a temptation for invaders. Many captured these lands, including Alexander the Great. Most of these invaders looted and returned home or settled in India, eventually losing their identity and becoming one of the inhabitants.

This change of grand Mohammad Gori in Afghanistan has become a change of games. The mountains wanted to enlarge their kingdom and decided to cross the Hindu Kush mountains to bite on the borders of the Indian Subcontinent. His invasions began in 1175 AD. He met resistance and he won and lost territory. He conquered Multan and then tried to do the same with the region that more or less constitutes the modern region of Gujarat. He failed to accept Gujarat. In subsequent attacks, he conquered the Peshawar region and built a fort at Selkot in 1181 AD. He made an alliance with King Jayadzev, which allowed him to end the rule of the Ghazni dynasty in the Punjab and capture Lahore in 1186 AD. These successes spurred Mohammad Gori’s appetite for more land. A larger share of India now seemed to Gora a reality. His possessions brought the conqueror closer to the borders of the land ruled by Tsar-Warrior-Pritviraj Chauhan. Pritviraj belonged to the powerful Rajput clan, which ruled the most powerful kingdom in northern India.


Prithvi Raj Chauhan (1166-1192 AD) belonged to the Chauhan dynasty (Chahaman) and ruled Delhi and the surrounding areas. His clan ruled one of the broadest kingdoms, which included Ajmer, Sambar and Delhi in northern India in the second half of the 12th century. The Chauhans consolidated their kingdom by conquering and uniting neighboring kingdoms, including the Chandel Rajputs of Bundelhand. Chauhan rule included much of northwestern India, including modern-day Rajasthan, Haryana, parts of Uttar Pradesh, and Punjab. Probably Pritviraj was one of the most powerful kings in northern India.

Known for his ambitions and courage, his military exploits made him a legend while still alive. His daring abduction and subsequent marriage to Princess Samyuktha, the daughter of Jai Chandra Rotoda, King of Kanaui, is part of a popular romance. His life and death were romanticized and celebrated in the epic poem “Prithviraja Raso” written by his close associate and courtier Chand Barda. Prithviraj Chauhan was the last independent Hindu king to sit on the throne of Delhi.

BITS OF TARIN (1191 and 1192):

Approaching the reign of Pritviraj, in 1191 Mohammad Gori captured a fortress in the Batinda region. Gori could not resist the temptation and voiced the failure of the war with Pritvirah. He faced a fierce enemy in Pritvira. Rajput’s army was led by Govindara, a vassal of the king. Both armies met in the town of Tarain or Taraori near Thanesar, located in the modern state of Haryana, about 150 km north of Delhi. In this war, Pritviraj managed to form a coalition of modern rulers, including King Jayadev, the ruler of Kanaui. The mountains faced unexpected resistance and lost the battle. He is said to have been severely wounded and barely escaped from the battlefield by a water carrier.

Gory felt offended and longed for revenge. He had no reputation as a smart general. Before he turned to India, he was known more for his defeats than his military successes. He more than corrected his weaknesses with his diligence. India was to become a point of redemption for him. Despite the humiliating defeat, he returned the following year 1192. This time, however, circumstances favored him, and he was able to win the battle and what a decisive victory it was! The second battle of Taraina became a major one in the politico-military history of India. This was the beginning of a loss of political power for its leaders and residents. The decisive defeat of Pritvira, who possessed the aura of a daring superhero, had a spiral. After tasting the blood, the armies of the Mountains suddenly turned into Machines of Destruction and Victory. The army moved forward and reached Immer almost unmistakably. Alarmed by the defeat of their contemporaries, the Rajput kingdoms, such as Saraswati, Samana, Hansi, Kahram, fell without forcing the aggressors to sweat profusely. After these successes, Gurid’s army turned its attention to Delhi and captured it as well. Literally a year after winning the second battle of Tarain, Mohammad Gori controlled most of northern and central India, including the luxuries of Rajasthan and the fertile Ganges-Yamuna-Doab area. The Indian possessions of the Mountains were organized together with Delhi as the main arch. Delhi saw that it manifested itself in the spotlight. Glamor entered the spotlight and metamorphosis began. This small piece of land has long been associated with the concept of power.

Gory was not “blessed” by the descendants. In the Middle Ages slaves were an integral part of the emperor’s life. Slaves played an important role, including helping their lords maintain and expand their empires. Given the important role of slaves, they were well prepared for various aspects, including military action. Many slaves rose to important positions based on their specified capabilities. The role they played in the political matrix of Gori is emphasized in response to the baits of the courtiers that he has no heirs: “Other monarchs may have a son or two; but I have thousands of them (slaves). They will be the Descendants of my kingdom and after me. will take care of keeping my name in the khutbah (political speech after Friday prayer) in my territories.After the murder of Mohammed Gori, his slaves divided their territory among themselves after death.

The battle for Indian territory was led by the capable and ruthless General Khutub-ud-din Aybak. He was a slave to his king and had to wait for an assassination attempt in Afghanistan to be liberated. After liberation, Eibak declared himself the ruler of the Indian possessions of Gori and in 1206 founded the “Dynasty of slaveholders” Mamluk, or dynasty of slaves. The Mamluk dynasty was the first among the dynasties to become known as the Delhi Sultanate. The importance of Eibak’s ascent can be understood in the words of Paul K. Davis, who writes: “Although Islam was introduced to India several centuries earlier, after this battle Muslims ruled India, especially northern India, until the fall of the Mughals. The 1857 dynasty.”

The construction of the Qutub Minaret played a vital role in consolidating the power of Islamic kings in India. Its construction was well planned and symbolized the domination of the invading forces in India. The history of Qutub Minar is inevitably linked to the beginning of political imperialism in India.


The soldiers of the Mountain entered the territory inhabited by people who adhered to a religion that was anathema to their religious beliefs. They looked amazing in their beliefs, manners and psychological makeup. With the death of the king (Prithviraj Chauhan) and a drastic change in political leadership, the chances of the new victors settling in the new territory remained small. The atrocities alone could not guarantee success, so, along with barbarism, Eibak used the most important and time-tested tool to play with the minds of his “subjects” —RELIGION.


Even before he officially took the reins as sultan, Aybak laid the foundation of the Kwawat-ul-Islam mosque. One of the main reasons for the rapid construction of the occupiers was the desperate need for prescribed places of worship in the new lands. The first mosque, built in Delhi after the Islamic conquest of India, remains the oldest surviving example of Gurid architecture on the subcontinent. Built on a raised and paved courtyard measuring 141 feet. X 105 feet. It is a simple structure surrounded by the pillars of the monastery. The main mosque consists of a courtyard and an outer courtyard, of which the shafts are internally decorated, an exquisite colonnade, the pillars of which are made of rich.

Sounds simple? Read on. The mosque was built on the foundations of the largest temple of Vishnu near Lalkot. Decorated domes of temples and pillars were widely used throughout the building to enter the courtyard. They were obtained from 27 nearby Hindu and Jain temples, destroyed and looted to build a mosque. It was also built by Hindu masons into captivity. It is therefore not surprising that the Muslim mosque has distinctive Hindu decorations.

Immediately after choosing the site for the mosque, Eibak began the demolition. For weary troops traveling from a distant homeland, this destruction was a symbolic destruction of idols in Kabai by the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). By this act he treated his soldiers, presenting himself as a Gazi or a religious warrior. Eibak also made a huge statement to the locals. His destruction of sacred spaces symbolized the powerlessness of their pagan Gods. The iconoclastic tendencies of the invaders are manifested today in this place, when the carving of gods and crosses on pillars was severely mutilated. However, creating a place for religion that was diametrically different from the natives, an authoritative statement was made – “My god is more powerful than yours.” Interpreting this in modern terms “it was great propaganda”.

Першая ісламская структура ў складзе комплексу Кутуб, мякка зразумелая масам і зразумелая ім па сваёй спрошчанай сімвалічнасці, мячэць велічна стаяла як сімвал панавання. Ён выступаў за здольнасць захопніка знішчыць знаёмыя і суцяшаючыя прыналежнасці Дэлі, ствараючы тым самым пачуццёвае пазбаўленне яго жыхароў. Гэта было зроблена, каб разарваць дух жыхароў і знізіць альбо пагоршыць любыя шанцы на паўстанне. Для таго, каб абвясціць пра свае намеры гучна і ясна, Эйбак непахісна паставіў надпіс на персідскай мове на ўнутранай усходняй браме, што “мячэць была пабудавана ў выніку разбурэння дваццаці сямі храмаў індуізму і джайны”. Альбо з-за нястачы часу, зручнасці альбо наўмысна, цокаль храма, пабудаваны індуісцкімі царамі, застаўся цэлым і стварыў ілюзію дамінуючай мячэці ў перыметрах храма (пра пераможаных людзей). У асіметрычным зліцці была поўная магутная ілюзія агрэсіўнай рэлігіі, якая пераймала інтэнсіўную, але неагрэсіўную рэлігію. Гэта мячэць заставалася сімвалам ісламскага панавання. Гэта аб’яднанне было магутным і наступныя султаны таксама хацелі зрабіць долю ў яго сімвалізме. Яго пашырылі Шамс-уд-дын Ілтутміш і Аладдзін Хільдзі.

У цэлым мячэць Квават-уль-Іслам нагадвае стыль і дызайн архаі-дзін-ка Джомпра або мячэці Аджмер ў Аймеры, штат Раджастан, таксама пабудаванага Айбакам у той жа час, пабудаванай таксама пры зносе ранейшых храмаў і санскрыцкай школы, на пляцоўцы.


У сваім гатовым стане Мінар з’яўляецца сімвалам архітэктурнай дасканаласці і ў свеце, як вядома, не мае паралелі. Падмурак Кутуб Мінара быў закладзены ў 1199 годзе. Самы высокі каменны мінарэт у свеце відавочна натхнёны многімі іншымі структурамі ў ісламскім свеце, у тым ліку Мінарэтам Джэма ў Афганістане. Мінус Qutub Minar мае пяць розных паверхаў, кожны з якіх адзначаны выступаючым балконам, які ажыццяўляецца на мукарнасе. Кутуб Мінар стаў адной з самых важных “Вежаў Перамогі” ў ісламскім свеце.

Будаўніцтва Кутуб Мінар, здаецца, пачалося ў той самы час, што і мячэць, але яго завяршэнне заняло значна больш часу, чым мячэць. У той час як гісторыя пабудовы мячэці Квават-уль-Іслам распаўсюджвалася далёка і шырока, яе візуальны ўплыў быў кропкавым, што азначала людзей, якія бачылі яе, падвяргалася ўплыву яе прапорцый і сімвалічнага сэнсу. Мінар быў больш магутным сімвалам, які мог аказваць масавае візуальнае ўздзеянне, бо ён быў размешчаны як кутуб, вось або полюс ісламу. Яе відаць здалёк. Шматлікія навукоўцы мяркуюць, што першапачатковай мэтай пабудовы Кутуб Мінара было садзейнічанне муаззіну (крыеру) заклікаць вернікаў да малітвы. Улічваючы вышыню Мінара, спатрэбіцца цудоўны і спартыўны Муазін, каб падняцца на 379 прыступак пяць разоў на дзень.

Эйбак жыў толькі, каб убачыць завяршэнне першага паверха. Іншыя тры паверхі былі пабудаваны яго зяцем і пераемнікам Ілтутміш. Кутуб Мінар служыў вежай перамогі – перамогі ісламскіх воінаў супраць пераважна індуістаў, джайны і будыйскіх жыхароў, якія не вытрымалі сілы сваіх заваёўнікаў. Балкон на першым паверсе Мінара, які муаззін мог выкарыстаць, каб выклікаць вернікаў на малітвы. Гучны муаззін, які заклікаў вернікаў, можна было чуць здалёк пяць разоў на дзень, нагадваючы перамаглі іх зменены статус.

Першапачаткова Кутуб Мінар складаўся толькі з чатырох паверхаў, складзеных з чырвонага і буйнага пяшчаніка. Калі ў выніку маланкі быў пашкоджаны верхні паверх (чацвёрты), у 1368 г. Ферыш Шах Туглак загадаў правесці рамонт. Ён замяніў пашкоджаны верхні паверх двума мармуровымі гісторыямі (спосаб здабыць пастаянную долю ў яго будаўніцтве). Такім чынам, сёння Мінар узвышаецца з пяці паверхаў.

Жалезны слуп:

Жалезны слуп размешчаны ў двары комплексу Кутуб. Гэта адна з вядучых у свеце металургічных рарытэтаў, а разліковая вага дэкаратыўнага звона слупа складае 646 кг. Вага асноўнага корпуса складае 5865 кг, прымаючы вагу слупа да 6,511 кг. Ён паднімаецца на вышыню 7,20 м, на 93 см заглыбляецца ніжэй за ўзровень падлогі. Прычына ўзрушэння і здзіўлення ў тым, што, нягледзячы на ​​тое, што ён выраблены з жалеза і падвяргаўся капрызам прыроды больш за 1000 гадоў, ён не праржавеў, што ўяўляе сабой выдатны прыклад перадавой металургіі тых часоў. Апошнія даследаванні выказалі здагадку, што метал, які ўяўляе сабой слуп, з’яўляецца чыстым падатлівым жалезам. Яго недаверлівы стан таксама падсілкоўваў міфы. Лічыцца, што той, хто можа абвесці ўвесь слуп сваімі рукамі, спіной да слупа, можа задаволіць сваё жаданне.

Жалезны слуп відавочна індуісцкай структуры. На ёй ёсць надпіс, напісаны брамі, які распаўсюджаны ў чацвёртым стагоддзі А. Д. Апошнія даследаванні паказваюць, што ён, верагодна, быў перамешчаны з іншага месца. Падлічана, што ён быў створаны як Вішнудхвая (эталон бога Вішну) на ўзгорку, вядомым як Вішнупада, у памяць пра магутнага цара па мянушцы Чандра, хутчэй за ўсё, Чандрагупта II Вікрамадзіты (375-414 г. н.э.). Першапачаткова ўзведзены перад комплексам храма Вішну ў Удаагіры каля 402 года нашай эры, ён мае глыбокую разетку ў верхняй частцы багатай сталіцы, што сведчыць пра тое, што, верагодна, выява Гаруды была замацавана ў ёй, як гэта было звычайнай практыкай. Пра гэта ёсць дзве гісторыі. Адна з гісторый кажа, што яе прывезлі ў Дэлі Анангпал, заснавальнік Дэлі. Большасць доказаў, якія пацвярджаюць гэтую гісторыю, былі сабраны з легенд. Падаецца, што сярод даследчыкаў існуе адзінае меркаванне, што менавіта Ілтутміш зрушыў слуп з Удаагіры да цяперашняга месца прыблізна ў 1233 годзе нашай эры.


Пабудаваць уласныя магілы ў палітычна значных фізічных прасторах лічылася вялікай і рэдкай пашанай. Такім чынам, такія магчымасці нікому, акрамя самому кіраўніку, яго кроўным сваякам або духоўнаму кіраўніку, былі адмоўлены. Як сапраўдны кансалідатар Дэлі султаната, Ілтутміш заяўляў пра гэты прывілей як сваё права. Грабніца Ілтутміш (А. Д. 1211-36) была пабудавана ў 1235 г. Д. 12. Гэта звычайная квадратная камера з чырвонага пяшчаніка, багата выразаная з надпісамі, геаметрычнымі і арабескімі ўзорамі ў сарацынскай традыцыі на ўваходах і ў цэлым інтэр’еры. Цэнтральная камера складае 9 м кв і мае мурашкі, што мяркуе існаванне купала, які з таго часу разваліўся. Сенатаф у белым мармуры размяшчаецца на ўзнятай платформе ў цэнтры камеры. Магіла выразна выразана з фасада і ўнутраных сцен. У заходняй сцяне ў магіле ёсць міхраб, упрыгожаны мармурам, і ўяўляе сабой багатую разьбу, напрыклад, званочкі, пэндзлік, лотас, алмазныя эмблемы і г.д.


Размешчаная ў задняй частцы комплексу Кутб-Мінар, на паўднёвы захад ад мячэці Квават-уль-Іслам, магіла Ала-уд-дын-Хілдзі знаходзіцца ў рэштках Г-падобнай канструкцыі. Магіла была датавана 1316 годам нашай эры. У яго ваколіцах ляжыць пабудаваная ім мадарса альбо ісламская семінарыя. Хільдзі быў магутным заваёўнікам і другім султанам Дэлі з дынастыі Хільджы, які кіраваў з 1296 па 1316 год нашай эры. Цэнтральны пакой будынка, дзе яго магіла адкрыта да неба, страціла свой купал. Шматлікія нумары семінарыі ці каледжа засталіся цэлымі і з таго часу былі адноўлены. Гэта таксама першы прыклад у Індыі, дзе побач з мадарсай знаходзіцца магіла. У адпаведнасці з яго рэпутацыяй заваёўніка, ала-уд-дын назваў сябе другім сікандрам (Аляксандр). Ён быў вядомы як мегаломан, так і праваслаўны мусульманін. Цалкам натуральна, што ён прэтэндаваў на сваё месца ў унікальным сімвале Перамогі ісламу ў Гіндустане.


Ала-Дарваза, паўднёвая брама мячэці Квават-уль-Іслам, была пабудавана Ала-уд-Дзінам Хаджы ў 1111 г., як паказана ў надпісах, выгравіраваных на ёй. У гэтым будынку выкарыстоўваюцца ісламскія прынцыпы пабудовы і арнаментацыі, уключаючы сапраўдныя аркі і сапраўдныя купалы. Ён упрыгожаны чырвоным пяшчанікам і інкруставаны ўпрыгожваннямі з белага мармуру, надпісамі па пісьменства Нашх; рашэцістыя каменныя шырмы і вітрыны выдатнага майстэрства турэцкіх рамеснікаў, якія працавалі над ім. Лічыцца адным з найважнейшых будынкаў, пабудаваным у перыяд Дэлі султаната. З яго вострымі аркамі і махрамі, абазначанымі бутонамі лотаса, ён надае міласці мячэці Квават-уль-Іслам, у якую яна служыла ўваходам.


Недабудаваная вежа Ала-уд-дзін Хільдзі, Алай-Мінар, знаходзіцца на поўнач ад Кутуб-Мінара. Ён хацеў канкураваць Кутуб Мінар і планаваў яго будаўніцтва такім чынам, што пасля таго, як ён скончыцца, ён будзе ўдвая большы за Кутуб Мінар. Алай Мінар сімвалізуе мегаломанію свайго заступніка Ала-уд-дына Хільдзі, які дакладна зразумеў сімвалічную значнасць Кутуб-Мінара. Ала-уд-дын Хільдзі, несумненна, быў вялікім заваёўнікам. Ён пашырыў сваю тэрыторыю ў бок паўднёвых раёнаў Індыі. Ён задумаў вельмі амбіцыйную будаўнічую праграму пасля таго, як урачыста вярнуўся з кампаніі “Дэкан”. Ён пачаў будаўніцтва Алая Мінара пасля таго, як ён удвая павялічыў памеру мячэці Квават уль-Іслам. Ён хацеў, каб яго вежа была ў два разы вышэй, чым Кутб Мінар, прапарцыйна ягонай мячэці. Пасля яго смерці праца на Мінары была закінута, і яе крупы стаяць на даўжыні вышыні 25 м.


Падчас ісламскага кіравання іканаборства было неад’емнай часткай палітычнага кіравання. Гэта рабілася дзеля палітычных выгод альбо было вынікам нецярпімасці. Гэтыя дзеянні мелі моцныя палітычныя вынікі. Сучасны гісторык павінен інтэрпрэтаваць гэтыя ўчынкі, улічваючы адчувальнасць таго часу. Большасць заваёўнікаў, у тым ліку рымляне, знішчылі месцы пакланення сваіх супернікаў. Гэта не азначае ратыфікацыі такіх жорсткіх дзеянняў, але іх інтэрпрэтацыю, разумеючы, што ў тыя часы гэтыя тактыкі былі звычайнымі. Ідэя тут – даведацца, якім чынам панаванне было дасягнута ў сярэднявечны перыяд і як манументальная архітэктура адыграла вырашальную ролю ў гэтай палітычнай матрыцы.


Restructuring the health architecture is one end of the spectrum

Maternal and child mortality in Nigeria

For the most part Nigeria is doing poorly in health care. However, given the stage of its development, the country will not reach the level of excellence with industrialized countries. But its poor and endangered path of development has slowed overall socio-economic progress. The statistics are high for a country that owns the amount of human and natural resources of Nigeria. Many institutional patterns of error have befallen the most populous black nation in the world. Malaria, tuberculosis and other infectious diseases of the Third World continue to threaten the country’s productivity. Given the “restoration” of the management system and institutional ignorance, life expectancy in the country is estimated at the age of 47-50 years. However, life over 50 is characterized by wealth, education, nutrition and the ability to reach the end.

As much as the whole world as Nigeria may seem attractive, especially in the field of oil and gas drilling, the 2007/2008 Human Development Report put the black nation in its place. In the UNDP report, Nigeria ranks close to the bottom of the maternity index. The country is only ahead of low-income countries experiencing stress (LICUS) such as Rwanda, Angola, Chad, Niger and Sierra Leone. The political argument behind this rating is based on population and human density; allowing higher contacts and faster spread. As much as true; the people do not have a clear view on how to keep their citizens healthy.

There is no common vision among health stakeholders. These include health care organizations, clinicians, health consumers and policy makers. Undoubtedly, with an increase in population there is an increase in the spread of diseases. However, for Nigeria there is no deep profiling of the health of its citizens. The nation, rich in oil, lacks a proper system for collecting and disseminating information. These multidimensional development tools of the 21st century inform the country about the necessary intervention models. Every citizen – within the age category of accountability – must understand how much health care remains a civil right to have.

The country needs to fix the policy and economics of the situation. Health promotion and medical care in the country need bold, practical and rapid developments.

Maternal and child mortality statistics:

Nigeria has a national population of 140 million; 1 in 5 Africans is Nigerian. In addition to the report, 23% are women of childbearing age. In 2006, a national report estimated that 65 million Nigerians were women. 30 million of this number in the reproductive age -15-49 years. It is expected that 6 million Nigerian women become pregnant each year. In 2007, the WHO, UNICEF and UNDP counted only 5 million pregnancies that led to childbirth.

Other statistics have appeared in different directions. Soon these solid numbers may not completely capture the whole picture. And in this letter they serve as an indication of what may actually be. The current prevalence of contraceptives is 8%, and unwanted pregnancies among adolescents are noted at 60%. The use of antenatal care by trained professionals is estimated at 64%; while the proportion of pregnant women placed in training is 37%. The proportion of women delivered home is 57%; and nearly half of adolescent mothers do not receive women’s care.

About food and medicine; 58% receive iron supplements, and 30% – malaria drugs. 50% receive two or more doses of tetanus. In general, urban women are more positive about things than their rural counterparts. For example, urban women are 3 times more likely to have a female pregnancy than rural women. Although improvements have been recorded in a recent national publication, much needs to be done.

Extended perspective:

This is the global mortality rate among women. Globally, 536,000 women die each year. Although Nigeria contributes 1.7% to the world’s population; yet according to the statistics of the death of the mother she makes up 10% of the world’s population. Here’s the scary part. Because Nigeria accounts for 10% of maternal deaths, this results in at least 53,000 women dying each year. This is the equivalent of 10 jumbo planes crashing every month and one 737 planes every day or one woman dying every 10-15 minutes. A Nigerian woman is 500 times more likely to die in childbirth than her European counterpart.

On the child side, about 5.3 million of them are born in Nigeria each year, which is at least 11,000 every day. 1 million of these children die before the age of 5 years. A total of 0f 2300 children die daily. That’s exactly 23 plane crashes a day. More than a quarter (25%) of the approximately 1 million children who die each year under the age of 5 in Nigeria die in infancy. (Source; Academic Report on Improving Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health)

The identified socio-cultural and economic status of women is a major part of these statistics. For example, low status of women, poverty, poor nutrition (in childhood, adolescence and adulthood), ignorance and illiteracy; again, we may consider religious beliefs – often this acts as a barrier to the use of affordable health services – and finally harmful traditional practices. In general, the country has multidimensional causes that contribute to the complexities of health care. But if Nigeria can improve in its data collection, collection and dissemination in line with socio-cultural, economic and educational differences; such data management and control will allow reformers to virtually evaluate and track intervention programs. Progress in this format will mean successful intervention procedures against institutional goals and an original understanding of crises.

This process can be weighed against the goals and objectives of the WHO primary care. The forward-looking organization’s recommendation called for a practical, science-based, socially acceptable, and technologically advanced health promotion and care system. It also suggests development techniques and strategies for lively independence and determination. Now data collection will largely involve community involvement.

There is no better form of encouraging self-determination; it is the group’s ability to manage its resources as it sees fit: without compensating for the detrimental effects on the immediate environment and expanded neighbors. Based on their core values ​​and norms, communities can assist in describing and developing an intervention platform appropriate to their development status. With this level of engagement, reformers can easily identify which part of the community’s instrumental capacity-building needs help and which requires reorientation. Education to promote health and care and its needs is easily passed on; in the community management system.

Nigeria is a signatory to various conventions and declarations on women. For example the UN Convention on the Rights of Women and Children; as well as the Bamako Declaration, which adopted the Women’s and Children’s Health Initiative as a strategy to achieve the 2010 vision.

But these problems of the legitimate rights of women and children must be brought to the attention of fundamentalist communities with the ease and cohesion of diplomacy. The direct use of any force, intellectual or economic, will reduce the chances of success in such places. Achieving healthcare best practices in Nigeria requires robust cooperation, shared vision, competitive market development, technology awareness, consumer profiling, correct policy prescriptions, corporate alignment between capital expenditures and corporate goals and finances. These sets of interactions should focus on the extraction of the basic value, the interaction and the reduction of elastic effects.


In the healthcare market, in practice, there are actors who will determine the trajectory of its institutional future. The current concentrations of health professionals in Africa are mainly on episodic and acute medicine. Expanding these scales is a matter of concern for public health. However, best practices and a competitive global healthcare market will be more responsive to enhanced chronic disease management and lifelong disease prediction and prevention. With regard to prognostic and preventive medicine, consumers will need to take responsibility for their health, as well as set requirements for a transformed health care system. As part of this attempt, welfare drawings will make it possible to deliver a higher cost.

Given the awareness, product suppliers will find it necessary to work with physicians and delivery organizations to help develop products that improve results or provide equivalent results at a lower cost. These functions are relatively dependent on the norms and values ​​of a given society. Society, for its part, must make realistic and rational decisions regarding lifestyle expectations. They also need to prescribe acceptable behaviors, and finally understand what health care should be a social right rather than a market service. Health management best practices emphasize disease prevention, early detection, and health promotion. As a result, societies will play a greater role in enhancing and implementing the professional message of preventive medicine.

The government, on the other hand, will need to raise the level and scale of ignorance of the national health care system. Best practices assign governments in leadership the role of establishing the political willpower needed to remove obstacles. They should stimulate innovation by developing a competitive healthcare market that is suitable and conducive to foreign direct investment. This can be achieved through integrated and robust development pathways. Efforts to rebrand or rethink Africa’s economic performance cannot yield adequate results without strong financial systems.

Financial institutions in Africa have the highest interest rates on loans. Thus, in the economies of the region there are a variety of systematic crises. Optimized financial systems will reduce systematic crises in corporate and household affairs. It is an algorithmic way to revive entrepreneurship, public-private partnerships, and to increase economic security in terms of well-being and livelihoods. Good health management practices point to the “commercialization” of health promotion and health care delivery. The healthcare market is evolving rapidly and, like technology, countries that refuse to adapt will continue the addiction syndrome. There is great confidence that businesses that understand healthcare development will manage their industries in the future. Dead management decisions against this truth could reduce a corporation’s future profitability. This is especially true of financial institutions, banks and non-banks. To truly address content issues, the development of the healthcare market requires the same priority that IT was required at the time of its emergence.

Mostly, the development of a successful healthcare market goes beyond infrastructure and IT implementation. This is much higher than the introduction of specialized centers. Successful market development requires coordination and integration between sectors. Best practices in healthcare cannot be achieved without a competitive market. Targeted win-win scenarios for all stakeholders, businesses and aid organizations. But market leadership and large institutional relationships will belong to businesses and CDOs that inform their operational, financial and managerial visions of this – globally integrated – new market.


Tourist attractions – Hyderabad

Hyderabad is one of those rare cities that is rich in culture and is on a par with the ever-escalating standards of today. Visiting Hyderabad is tantamount to traveling in a time machine. Although the charm of Charminar and Fort Golconda take you back in time for at least 400 years, the ultra-modern infrastructure of the city of Hitech evokes the feeling that you have stepped into the future. With such attributes, it is difficult to surprise that Hyderabad is one of the most popular tourist destinations in India.

Charminar, a 420-year-old building made of granite, lime and dusty marble, is a pictorial representation of Hyderabad. The structure is a fine example of Indo-Islamic architecture and is aesthetic. The Charminar, called the Arc de Triomphe of the East, is an amazing picture, especially when illuminated in the evenings. A visit to Charminar is not complete without exploring the market that bypasses the monument. A tourist can easily pick up the perfect memory in one of the 14,000 stores.

Golconda Fort is touted as one of the most magnificent fortresses built in India. Built by the Katsiya Kings, the fortress consists of a palace, a mosque, weapons, royal apartments, 80 locks and 4 bridges. The priceless Koh-i-Noor diamond was excavated from mines located near this mound. Although in ruins Fort Golconda still makes a strong impression on the minds of visitors, and it is definitely worth a visit.

A visit to one of the many royal palaces gives us a glimpse of the luxurious life enjoyed by the rulers of Hyderabad. The structures themselves are architectural wonders, and the eye-catching interior designs mimic the various medieval architectures of the Middle East and Gothic. The ingenuity of Indian architects is manifested in the marvelous designs for which Choumahalla Palace, Osman Gar Palace, Phalanum Palace, Taramata Baradari, King Koti Palace and Bela Vista are famous.

The fact that Hyderabad has always been secular in nature is evidenced by the beautiful temples, mosques, churches and monasteries found in the city. Mecca Masjid, the royal mosque, which is believed to be built of bricks brought from Macka, is one of the most fascinating mosques in India. Shahi Masjid is one of the oldest mosques in Hyderabad, and its pleasant appearance continues to pinch the nerves. Ananda Buddha Vihara is a Buddhist tourist destination that serves as a holiday home for monks. Birla Mandir Temple, Chilkur Balaji Temple and Sangi Temple are other religious sites in Hyderabad that attract a lot of tourist traffic.

Hyderabad also houses the world’s largest antique collection on display at the Salar Jung Museum. The museum houses countless antiques dating back several centuries, and exploring the museum in full throughout the day is a Herculean task. The Birla and Birla Science Museum Planetarium is another place that entertains and educates young people.

Ramoji Film City (RFC) is the world’s largest integrated film studio and theme park, located on 3,000 hectares of land. Visiting one of the most popular Asian holiday resorts in Asia is a great way to stop a trip to Hyderabad. The RFC always awakens with its activities, as many events involving glitters and film lovers are held here. You can explore the many natural and man-made attractions at RFC either by a short tour or by staying at one of the 3- and 5-star hotels located at the entrance to the city-cinema.


The legacy brings you Fatehpur Sikri

Fatehpur Sikri is one of the most famous and world-famous cities in India, located in the Agra district, just 37 km from the city of Agra Taj Mahal and 245 km from Delhi. Founded and built by the great Mughal emperor Akbar in the 16th century, which serves as the capital of the Mughals, the city-wall showcases the best collection of indigenous Mughal architecture you will ever find anywhere in the world. Fatehpur Sikri, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, combines various flavors of regional architecture with Islamic overtones carved from sophistication on red sandstone. This fort has a huge five-million-strong wall that delimits its perimeter and adorns the marvelously refined entrances. Important monuments and buildings of the fortified city include:

• Jama Masjid: A beautiful but massive mosque, accompanied by an equally large courtyard, lies next to the marvelous Bouland of Darwaz. It has an intricately carved marble insert and exquisite architecture like most Indian mosques.

• Buland Darwaza: Installed along the south wall of the Jama Masjid, Buland Darwaza truly overlooks the majestic world thanks to its gigantic height of 55 meters, which proudly guards the entrance to the fenced city.

• Diwan-i-Aam: A pavilion built in the middle of a large open courtyard, Diwan-i-Aam served as the emperor’s meeting place with the townspeople. This is a surprisingly simple but tastefully carved design – another unusual example of the architectural sophistication of the Mughal era.

• Diwan-i-Khas: A truly beautiful square building built for the emperor to meet his private guests, this structure in the interiors is more beautiful than the exterior. The famous central pillar, located right in the middle of the building, has an octagonal shaft and serpentine brackets with intricately carved beautiful floral patterns and patterns. Here Akbar discussed his religious philosophies and secular issues.

• The Tomb of Salim Chisti: This tomb of pure white marble is in the courtyard of Jama Masjid and contains the great Sufi saint Salim Chisti – a revered saint of that era. The tomb of the saint and its surroundings are decoratively carved and decorated with patterns decorated with screens and mosaic designs. The number of “hatris” and bright serpentine brackets add glory to this place.

• Punch Mahal: a really big structure, Punch Mahal is a five-story multi-tiered wonder that impresses everyone and everyone. Gradually decreasing tiers end in a single large “chhatra” at the top. Its 176 intricately carved columns and richly decorated stone curtains add even more atmosphere of architectural dignity.

• Anup Talao: a beautiful geometrically flawless rich pool with a pad in the middle and four jumpers leading to it. It is said that in Akbar’s time singing competitions were held in the middle of the platform. Surrounded by the most important building of all Fatehpur Sikri, Anup Talao looks stunning amidst grandeur.

Many more grandiose entrances produce the walls of the fortress, in addition to countless other buildings that line the entire city, surrounded by a wall, which together make Fatehpur Sikri a truly wonderful place.