The Neolithic or New Stone Age began in human time technologically and socially, a much more advanced era than previous years. This period marked the dawn of civilization, when people began to choose settlements during their wanderings. The manors of this time included huts made of mud, straw or brick, which together formed permanent villages. The Neolithic era also witnessed the domestication of animals, the emergence of sophisticated tools for fishing and hunting, and the development of agriculture and pottery. Religious, architectural and artistic pursuits have become an integral part of the lifestyle.
Various arts, such as weaving, architecture, megaliths and stylized icons, appeared only during the New Stone Age. The statue, paintings and pottery, taken from the Mesolithic era, underwent significant transformations. In Western Europe, bubbles (large stone blocks) began to be used to demarcate the boundaries between two tribal institutions, arenas of sacrifice, or places of worship. The artistic inclinations of people in the Neolithic era testify to how these menhirs were decorated using a variety of geometric shapes similar to squares, rhombuses and circles, as well as the shapes of zigzag rays carved on the sides.
In the statuettes of the New Stone Age was mainly the “Mother Goddess”, as can be seen from the earliest traces of human figures discovered during archaeological excavations. The pottery used during this period also demonstrates the artistic abilities of the people. These artifacts were adorned with bright colors including red, brown and yellow. The paintings were now visible on the walls of home institutions, which were mainly used for decorative purposes. The earliest landscapes in the world of painting also appeared from the New Stone Age.
Artistic expressions developed in tandem with the demands of the people. For example, architecture has evolved with increasing demand for permanent housing and places of worship. Similarly, wooden products and pottery are designed to meet the needs of furniture and utensils. One of the architectural wonders of the Neolithic era was the use of megaliths, the most famous example of which is England’s Stonehenge. The oldest known megalithic temple is Gqantija on the island of Gozo. Neolithic paintings and other arts have been excellent tools in the study of human evolution because they constitute a crucial link between early man and his environment, the level of development in that era, cultural practices and religious beliefs. In fact the art of this period laid the foundation for all further art forms.
Another interesting characteristic of Neolithic artistry is the discovery of such powerful animals as Bison and Auroch, which people were afraid to hunt because of the great threat they posed. The vertical arrangement of animals on poles and in other works of art symbolizes the sedentary lifestyle of this era. The importance of the hierarchical relationship between humans and spirits in these artifacts is depicted along vertical axes. It is also important in that he proved that long before man began to cultivate, he began the mental subjugation of animals and established superiority over them. Therefore, Neolithic art serves as a guiding point for understanding the years of human history and evolution.