Architecture and decoration of Christian churches / cathedrals, Jewish synagogues and Islamic mosques

Reflections on religious monuments as well as their devices in connection with their faith and prayer use. This reflection uses examples of the Jewish, Islamic, and Christian religions as examples of medieval times.

Welding Saser, as well as the religion of the profane sacred, the cradle of the sacer, the intertwined reality of faith and the profane. It is in cathedrals, temples, temples, synagogues and mosques that we connect saser and profanus, the house of prayer. Among the variety of religions and customs he brings a collection of sacred sectors, each with its devoted art and architectural composition and its own apparatus for communication, as well as the pious praise. The sectors are indeed built with their grooves and tiles that promote the aesthetic but pious that symbolize their faith.

The nave, which is the main building of the church, provided the central point of the high alternative, which was set aside for the clergy and extended from the entrance to the altar, which was designed from under the apse, which was surrounded by lower side aisles. This architectural design led to the development of the Gothic Christian abbey, Romanesque and cathedral basilica. The church of the Abbey of Saint-Denis is considered to be the first known Gothic structure in which Christians could worship. At that time Hagia Sophia was the Orthodox church of the basilica and later became the imperial mosque. Before St. Sophia became a mosque, it was a church dedicated to God’s wisdom, logo and the second person of the Holy Trinity. This structure since its inception has discovered some changes, from the first church to the second and third churches, to eventually become a mosque, and is now a museum.

The synagogue is the origin of the Hebrew word meaning house of assembly. It is a dwelling for collected prayer and discussion. The five books of Moses are practiced in Judaism, the Torah, and in the Hebrew Bible. They pray in the face of Jerusalem, and the structure of the synagogue focuses on this, as it is the ultimate link between the Saxons and the laymen. In particular, you can see three doorways, such as the Synagogue of Capernaum (4th century BC). These three points of entry can be attributed to the former liturgical divisions of the three ruined courtyards of the Jerusalem Temple. In the religion of Judaism, the god is non-figurative, and yet this notion is false because the district synagogues reflect artistry. For example, in the synagogue of Dura-Eurpus, a well-preserved Roman garrison between the Roman as well as the Sassan imperial, one can find a niche of the Torah. The separation of these designs provides a chandelier with seven branches, the Menorah, a solid emblem of Jewish art. The number seven symbolizes perfection and completion and represents the commandment of the holy holy day, as stated in the Torah. Also visible is the continuous narrative of the chronological storyline on the walls of Moses ’painting (239 AD). The display has two images of Moses, one turning the rod toward the Red Sea, and the other Moses leading the Israelites. The whole notion of a continuous narrative is related to a visual belief about how to show the relationship between God and humanity. Christians worship in churches, while Jews worship in synagogues, as a meeting place of both the sacred and the profane, as well as between the profane and the saser. In the synagogue it is easy to find the western wall, because it usually has niches of the Torah, which guide people in prayer to Jerusalem.

The architecture of the medieval Jewish synagogue differed from place to place, incorporating the aesthetics of the architecture of Christians or Muslim countries where Jews lived. Unlike the Christian church, whose cruciform design symbolizes the crucifixion of Christ, the synagogue lacked an architectural design that would be a symbolic factor.

Within the synagogue, some obligatory architectural elements provided for liturgical purposes. In the center of the synagogue was an elevated platform on which a Torah scroll was read, and was also called Bima among the Ashkenazi Jews, and among the Sephardim was called Teba.

The architectural significance of the beam reflected the significance of the Torah within Jewish rituals. The Torah scrolls were kept in the Holy Ark, meaning the Ark of the Covenant, which was known as Aaron ha-kodesh among the Ashkenazi and Hekhal among the Sephardic Jews. The arrangement of the ark is such that those who stand before it pray towards Jerusalem. Until the sixth century the ark was kept in a side room and outside a field that was separated by a curtain. In the Middle Ages, the Holy Ark was fixed in the center of the east wall of the synagogue, which stood in front of Jerusalem. The scrolls were aligned in a standing position so that parishioners could view them on the open ark. In turn, the ark, which was richly decorated with lions, was a symbol of Judas and tablets of the 10 commandments. Apparently, the veil, called the steamer, covered the Holy Ark according to Scripture (Exodus 40:21). Thus, the aron ha-kodesh symbolizes the Jewish tabernacle that was built when the Israelites wandered in the wilderness. The east wall should have a semicircular apse, and the front door should be through the west wall opposite the apse.

The prehistoric priestly duty to light a candle to burn forever before the Lord (cf. Lev. 24: 4) was also transferred to the eternal light that hung before the ark and burned all the time. The light of the eternal chandeliers was made of silver, brass or gold, depending on the wealth of the communities, and symbolized the spirituality of the Torah enlightenment. In addition, the synagogue had another desirable feature – a window. Maintaining faith in Daniel 6:11, the place of prayer of the prophets had a window. During prayers in the synagogue, the conscript is used to cover the Torah ark, inside which is the Torah scroll. In several synagogues paraffit is used throughout the year and is replaced on major holy days.

The Dome of the Rock, a shrine located on a temple hill in the old city of Jerusalem, is considered one of the oldest Islamic architectural works, the significance of which comes from religious traditions that are of great importance to both Jews and Christians and Muslims. Christians view the location of the dome as sacred because of the role of the temple in the life of Jesus Christ.

You can use a mihrab to focus on Mecca for prayers. The mihrab seems to have been a newer version of the Torah niche and apse. Due to the requirement to immediately disconnect the person from the profane space around them, the need for prayer was created. Similarly, the Torah scrolls of the medieval Ashkenazi world are read in beams or on an elevated platform located in the center. All seats stand in front of the Holy Ark (aron). In addition, Aaron is one of the many successors to the Torah niche where scrolls are kept.

In conclusion, the art and architecture of medieval Jews, Christians and Muslims were consistently determined by the requirements and dogmas of the respective religious beliefs. To varying degrees, Christians, Muslims, and Jewish artists and architects have inherited the artistic, aesthetic, and architectural heritage they received from ancient Roman, Hellenistic, Persian, and other cultures. In addition, the direct cultural contacts of Jews, Muslims and Christians were expressed in various ways in their material cultural productions. People in the Middle Ages eagerly imitated and also adapted artistic techniques to each other to create their own. It was not surprising for Muslims and Christian monarchs that artists from different religious communities worked for them. All three communities used religious art symbols in art as well as in architecture for polemical reasons.