Ancient Mesoamerican Archaeoastronomy

For centuries civilizations have relied on stars in many aspects of their daily lives. Whether celestial bodies were used for navigation, ritual, understanding of agriculture, or socio-political reasons that often put celestial bodies at the center of their ideology. Many civilizations considered these celestial bodies so high that they united their entire society around certain celestial bodies and annual celestial events, such as the equinox and sunshine, and very often associated these bodies and phenomena with their gods. One such Mesoamerican seemed to have a strong fusion between archaeoastronomy and their daily lives. The purpose of this paper is to show how different people who were associated with Mesoamerica viewed celestial bodies and how they integrated certain celestial events into their architecture, ideology, and daily life.

First, the definition of archaeoastronomy is justified in order to provide a better understanding of what is being discussed here. AF Avenue identified archaeoastronomy in his article entitled “Archaeoastronomy in Mesoamerica and Peru: Commentary: How” is more than a study of ancient astronomy through the use of archaeological data and the use of ancient texts. Archaeoastronomy is an interdisciplinary meeting place for those who are concerned with the perception and concept of the natural world by people of ancient civilizations “(Avery; 165). Summing up, we can say that archaeoastronomy is not just what these ancient people saw and recorded when they looked at the sky as well as how they carried out what they saw and drew conclusions based on such conclusions that carried over to aspects of their lives such as religious, agricultural and even urban planning.Avery offers the argument that archaeoastronomy is more than obvious to archaeoastronomy. archaeoastronomy is not only scientific data, but also the context in which these findings are incorporated to form an ideology based on celestial bodies and various facets of pre-Columbian Mesoamerican culture one can often find art, architecture and many records of rare religious practices that have survived using codes.Even though Avery is so itself may argue that Teotihuacan is special because its alignment corresponds to Serra Gordo (which was the main place where they drew water), which does not necessarily mean that archaeoastronomy has no scientific basis. stand further. In fact, proposing several theories of such an orientation stimulates new debates that may ultimately reveal new evidence about the specific reason that Theotihuacan orients as it is. While Avery is very harsh about the quarrel, many seem to think that Teotihuacan’s astronomical schedule is related to specific events. For example, some anthropologists seem to believe that the orientation of the Pyramid of the Sun at fifteen points to five degrees correlates with the setting of the Sun on August 13th. Moreover, the summit of the Pyramid of the Moon was associated with the narration of noon and midnight in its orientation. It is hard to believe that the orientation of these structures and the coincidence between celestial events are pure coincidences.

Next, it is unlikely that civilizations ignored the sky and what they saw in the night sky. There is so much data, on the contrary. Although Avery may not think that Teotihuacan’s orientation has anything to do with celestial events, he argues that many civilizations were aware of the heavens; their orientation in the sky and the ways in which they travel at night (and daily). According to an article Avery wrote entitled “Tropical Archaeoastronomy,” he argues that many of these civilizations have realized their celestial environment. He wrote: “In all ancient societies the sky and its content lay at the very base of human cognition. Early hunter-gatherers and later sedentary societies were greatly influenced by the reliable accuracy of the cyclical repetitions unfolding in the celestial canopy.” (Avery; 161).

Avery notes that celestial bodies and their positions (and paths) were valued by ancient civilizations and used in this way, for example, as an aid to sailors in navigation. In his work, Avery continues to explain some Mesoamerican astronomical concepts. He focuses on the Maya and commented on his advanced forms of writing, mathematics and astronomy. He goes on to talk about how they “also used the horizon system to monitor celestial events and to mark time.” (Avery; 162). For example, Avery tells of stone markers that were used to denote certain celestial events and their connection to earthly events. He writes: “The stone markers that continue behind Campo Santa to the top of a high hill west of the city. From Campo Santa to the top are about 1.5 km. The sun rises on the PS & OS line observed from the O&P stones on March 19, 1940. .2 “days before the equinox.” (Avery; 162-3). This information alone does not give anything extraordinary about stone markers, however it does provide a bit of background information and helps the reader to form a mental image. He sets the scene for the next quote. Avery then writes: “The sun rises on this day by 6 degrees 31.5 ms. Observation is observed with a simple adjustable compass. Observations on the stone today are performed by saccharins (shamans) for planting and harvesting.” (Avery; 162-3). This passage, though long and filled with scientific jargon, nevertheless shows that these stone marks that have been established can and have been used in conjunction with planting and harvesting. Think of these markers as an almanac of Mayan agriculture. Each year the shaman can go on the rocks and, using the simplest tools, make detailed calculations that will be used to ensure a positive impact on their agriculture. Without markers like these ancient Maya, it would be harder to figure out when to plant to ensure an optimal harvest and when to harvest to ensure the optimal quality of your crops.

Avery also wrote about architecture and its connection to celestial bodies in Mesoamerica. One such site that Averi talks about in detail is the Chichen Itza site. He and his associates discussed the calendar symbolism of certain buildings in Chichen Itza and certain correlations that can be seen in the May calendar. For example, Avery talks about Chichen Itza Castile and how some aspects may be related to aspects of Mayan theology, calendar, and celestial events. He describes Castile from Chichen Itza and connects it to these various aspects. For example, he writes, “This stepped radical pyramid possesses nine terraces, as do the number of levels of deceived Maya” (Avery; 129). Avery demonstrates how the Maya incorporated parts of their ideology into their architectural plans. He goes on to say, “On a divided staircase each side contains eighteen such layers, which is equal to the number of twenty days in May.” (Avery; 129) Avery demonstrates a direct relationship between how the Maya built and decorated this monument, and how they associated their calendar with it. Whether accidentally or intentionally, there is no denying that the similarity of the two attributes mentioned by Castillo shows that the Maya could very well have rooted these ideologies in the stone monuments that dominated the landscape. When Castile is viewed from above, it “resembles the four-sided diagrams of the universe that the ancient Mesoamericans drew in their codes, showing the four directed gods, plants, animals, names of days, etc.” (Avery; 129). Why would these Mesoamericans include this type of theological depth in a physical structure that could only be viewed from above? Could it be that they hoped to win allegiance to the gods by showing them the ways they worship and paying homage to them? Or is it just a mixture of theology and calendar mathematics that has just taken the shape it did, and that it can be viewed from the sky quite completely, is it just a coincidence? This author does not believe. This author believes that there was a conscious intention to appease the gods, perhaps in the hope of years of rich harvests and the prosperity of civilization. The architecture of Shichensky Castilla-Itza is full of possible conclusions. For example, Avery goes on to describe Castillo, writing, “Fifty-two in-depth panels adorn both sides of each staircase, as do the number of years in a calendar tour, the shortest interval in which a seasonal year is commensurate with tzolkin’s,” or a sacred 260-day tour. (Avery; 129). This additional layer of symbiosis between Mayan architecture and ideology lays an additional likelihood by arguing that the physical composition of the Castile at Shichen Itza is not accidental and that there is a conscious thought that has been given to incorporate these astronomical and theological ideas. Avery claims that Castile was built and functioned in a “calendar ritual ability in the context of an ancient four-year New Year’s festival cycle held over the last five days of the seasonal calendar” (Avery; 129). This look, in the eyes of Avera, had a certain ritual purpose. The building itself was incorporated by so many Mayan ideologies and theological beliefs that it was undoubtedly erected as a sacred place.
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Avery has not started a market when it comes to archaeoastronomy. There are many other anthropologists and other stakeholders who have voiced on the subject. After such a man it is Elizabeth Baiti. She wrote an article for modern anthropology entitled “Archaeoastronomy and Ethnoastronomy so far.” In her work she examines the construction of megalithic structures of ancient times and the astronomical techniques used in their construction. It also delves into the new student’s explanation, which includes engineering, archeology, and astronomy. She argues that there are many structures that were erected in ancient civilizations that had a specific purpose of predicting astronomical events. These buildings were installed not only for aesthetic value, although many of these buildings admired the beauty. Speaking of archaeoastronomy, she explains that she “focuses on analyzing the orientations and measurements of megalithic and other monumental ancient structures, many of which, as we shall see, could have been used to predict solar and lunar eclipses and have undoubtedly served to determine sunscreens, sunscreens, and sunscreens.” which allow to establish dates of agricultural activity and ritual cycle of the year “. (Bait; 390). As you can see, there are some similarities between what she is reasoning and the argument presented by Avery. Both give the impression that these buildings, built by ancient Mesoamericans, were built for astronomical, agricultural and religious events. Most of these structures were included in rites that coincided with certain seasonal events, and data can be learned about pottery, art, and other means. It is safe to say that Mesoamerican people focus on certain celestial events such as the solstice and the equinox. Some of these celestial events coincided directly with the planting or harvesting of annual crops that provided the food that Mesoamericans needed to develop as a civilization. The idea of ​​structures predicting specific celestial events is not new and not typical of Mesoamericans. Many other cultures throughout history have erected buildings for the same purpose. For example, Stonehenge is perhaps one of the most famous celestial monuments in the world. Archaeologists have tried to decipher what the stones are. Some archaeologists theorize that they note the magnitude of the moon’s azimuth, others seem to think they are directly related to the sun’s equinoxes and equinoxes. No matter what the differences between astronomers and anthropologists regarding Stonehenge, one thing is for sure — it was erected for a purpose other than pure utility. It is this push and stretching of long-held beliefs regarding the use of these monolithic structures that leads to new advances and breakthroughs in anthropology.

In Mesoamerica there are many other monuments that have archaeoastronomical content. One such site is the Mayan site in Copan. Harvey and Victorian Bricker describe some of the astronomical content on this site, called the 8N-11 group. In their article “Astronomical orientation of the Skyband stand in Kopan” Bricker tells about the Skyband bench. Like Teotihuacan, the orientation of the bench in the sky at Copan plays a key role in trusting the argumentation of the archaeoastronomical content of Mesoamerican cultures. In their article, they write: “The bench in the sky in Kopan is a bicephalic bird war (panels 1 and 9), not a snake, but all panels of the body have celestial images. Panels 2, 5 and 8 are frontal views of the head. The concept of the embodied the god of the Sun or the Sun. Panel 3 is the incarnation of the Moon, and Panel 7 is the personified Venus. Panels 4 and 6 are the incarnations of night and day, respectively “(Bricker; 435). These facts cannot be ignored. The fact that Mesoamericans create art that reflects celestial bodies and, moreover, embodying them, shows that they had a deep connection with the bodies in the heavens. The Skyband bench is a great example of the early Mesoamericans who demonstrate their consciousness of the heavens and celestial bodies that are inside. The Brickers Handbook is a good example of how part of Mesoamerican architecture can offer a wealth of knowledge and credibility for archaeoastronomy. As in any other discipline, the more papers to be published on a particular topic, the more the scientific community notices and hopefully works to accept these hypotheses.

The Maya were not the only Mesoamerican civilization that incorporated celestial images into their structure, and later into their culture. David Carrasco discusses Aztec culture in his article “Star Collectors and the Swaying Sun: Astral Symbolism in the Aztec Tradition.” In his essay, he explains spatial orientation and symbolism. He writes: “The Aztecs observed the stars, measured them and relied on their social and agricultural cycles.” (Carrasco; 284). Do you see a trend emerging? In almost all examples of Mesoamerican archaeoastronomy, agriculture is one of the main components. Without agriculture some civilization will surely perish. The ability to yield a bountiful harvest can mean the difference between a prosperous civilization and one that is in ruins. There are several factors to think about when it comes to agriculture. First, the sun can be both a find and a curse. Its heat and ultraviolet rays are necessary for plants in order to grow and thrive. Too much or not enough heat, and too much or not enough ultraviolet rays, and the crop will suffer. Second, water is needed for agricultural development. Without life-giving water the crop can dry up and civilization will suffer. Too much water and crops can be flooded, which will affect the crops and people will also suffer. The ancient Mesoamericans believed that the gods controlled all these facets of agriculture. Rituals were performed to appease the gods. Turning to the gods, the people hoped that the gods would look down on them generously and give them a bountiful harvest that would help preserve them for another season. It is logical that they wanted to be as well equipped as possible when it came to planting, supervision and harvesting. By including a way of predicting better planting and harvesting times, these people could ensure the sustainability of their civilization for future generations. Many of these ancient Mesoamerican shamans can be considered as early scientists without even knowing what they are. In their eyes, they were simply messengers or arbiters for the gods. In fact, they used the scientific method and applied it to various measuring devices (architectural structures) to show the means of scientific replication from year to year. These shamans knew that the solstice and equinox occur at certain times of the year, every year. Having the opportunity to reproduce these results, they not only helped their people but also built trust in themselves as messengers of the gods. These structures were necessary tools for the shaman to be able to perform his divine duties effectively.

All these examples of archaeoastonomy are connected by a certain imagery and celestial bodies. In almost every case there are images of the Sun, Moon and various other celestial bodies. Although they may be associated with various gods, these Mesoamericans highly regarded these celestial bodies as key elements of their survival. Without the sun the crops would certainly not have been able to. Without the Moon the tides could not be combed and watered, and thus navigation and fishing would be contradictory. Гэтыя ўсе важныя нябесныя багі складаюць неад’емную частку мезаамерыканскай ідэалогіі.

Для далейшага вывучэння гэтага пункту можна паглядзець артыкул Вельда Ягня пад назвай “Сонца, Месяц і Венера на Оксмале”. У гэтым артыкуле ён апісвае элементы многіх мазаік у Uxmal. Паглядзеўшы на гэтыя мазаікі, можна ўбачыць, як яны загружаюцца археаастранамічнымі дадзенымі. Шэлдан паглыбіўся ў гэтую тэму, растлумачыўшы факты, якія тычацца Месяца, Сонца і Венеры, якія знаходзяцца ў мазаіках на гэтым месцы. Ён піша, “што гэтыя прыкметы ў сукупнасці захоўваюць веды пра восем месяцаў пра Сонца, Месяц і Венеру: сінадычны перыяд Месяца складае 29,53 дня; месяцовы сідалічны перыяд доўжыцца амаль 27,33 дня; сярэдняя сінодычная Венера складае амаль 584 дні; назіраная сінодыка Венеры можа вар’іравацца ў межах 581 і 587 дзён; любыя пяць запар сінодыкі Венеры роўныя або прыходзяць на працягу аднаго дня васьмі няясных гадоў па 365 дзён кожны; адна карэляцыя сонца і месяц мае пяць кароткіх гадоў, а тры доўгія разам роўныя васьмі цьмяных гадоў ці восем сапраўдных сонечных гадоў альбо 99 месяцаў; сінерскі перыяд Венеры доўжыцца амаль 224 дні; і, нарэшце, 13 бакавых вырабаў Венеры практычна роўныя пяць сінодыкам Венеры “(Ягня; 79). Хоць гэта выглядае так, быццам гэта проста куча навуковых дадзеных з-за слоўнікавага запасу, у якім размешчана інфармацыя, трэба ўлічваць, што гэтыя мазаікі былі зроблены каля 750-1000 г. н.э. З улікам гэтага можна ўбачыць, як майя былі вельмі зацікаўлены ў нябесных целах і былі вельмі тэхналагічна сугучныя нябёсам. Такі выгляд звестак будзе ажыццяўляцца не на працягу некалькіх дзён і месяцаў, а на працягу многіх гадоў і пакаленняў. Такая самаадданасць можа азначаць толькі тое, што майя былі вельмі паглынуты археаастраноміяй. Гэтыя мазаікі таксама маюць фігуры жывёл, у асноўным змеі птушак, якія таксама адлюстраваны на сценах некаторых будынкаў. Гэта паказвае, што астраномія была інтэграваная і вельмі цесна звязана са сваёй рэлігіяй. Наяўнасць бостваў нараўне з астранамічнымі дадзенымі паказвае моцную карэляцыю паміж рэлігійнымі вераваннямі гэтых людзей і тым, наколькі цесна звязана гэта ў астраноміі. Мая, безумоўна, цікавілася астраноміяй і яшчэ больш зацікаўленая ў спробе захаваць сваю цывілізацыю, разумеючы сваіх багоў. Каб лепш зразумець сваіх багоў, гэта спосаб лепш служыць сваім багам і супакоіць сваіх багоў. Калі багі супакойваюцца, Майя думае, што будзе ўраджай больш багаты, больш паспяховыя ваенныя кампаніі і плён іх цывілізацыі.

У заключэнне, ёсць шмат антраполагаў, якія могуць не цалкам пагадзіцца з рознымі інтэрпрэтацыямі, якія зрабілі некаторыя даследчыкі археаастраноміі адносна архітэктуры і ідэалогіі мезаамерыканскага народа. Шмат чаго з гэтага якраз і ёсць: падрыхтоўка да інтэрпрэтацыі, але дастаткова навуковых дадзеных, якія дазваляюць паказаць, што на самай справе існуе сувязь паміж падзеямі, якія адбываюцца на нябёсах, і тэалагічнымі, сельскагаспадарчымі і культурнымі сувязямі, якія звязваюць многія з іх Месаамерыка да розных нябесных целаў. Гледзячы на ​​сучаснае неба, не дзіўна, што так шмат культур зачаравана дзівамі ў небе і днём, і ноччу. Сёння ў нас ёсць астраномы і перадавыя тэхналогіі, каб вылічыць, вылічыць і асэнсаваць усе дадзеныя, якія здабываюцца з нябёсаў. Яшчэ ў часы ацтэкаў, майя і іншых месаамерыканцаў нельга думаць, што яны зрабілі вельмі навуковыя разлікі ў дачыненні да нябесных тэл без дапамогі камп’ютэраў і іншых частак сучаснай тэхнікі. Дадайце, што з дзівоснай прыродай нябёсаў, і нездарма гэтыя людзі часта звязваюць нябесныя целы з богамі – Сонцам, Месяцам і іншымі нябеснымі целамі. Ва ўсім свеце існуюць падобныя павер’і ад полюса да полюса і ад паўшар’я да паўшар’я. У наступны раз, калі вы паглядзіце на неба і выбярыце сваё любімае сузор’е ці іншыя нябесныя целы, уявіце сабе, што бачылі Майя альбо Ацтэк. Глядзець у нябёсы – гэта як паглядзець у акно, якое вядзе ў мінулае.

Працы, цытаваныя

Авені, А. Ф. “Археаастраномія ў Месаамерыцы і Перу: каментарый”. Лацінска-амерыканскі даследчы агляд. 16. не. 3 (1981): 163-166.

Авені, А. Ф. “Трапічная археаастраномія”. Навука. 213. не. 4504 (1981): 161-171.

Авені, Энтані, Лопе Карлас і Сьюзен Мілбрат. “Спадчына Чычэн-Іца ў астранамічна арыентаванай архітэктуры Маяпана”. Антрапалогія і эстэтыка. не. 45 (2004): 123-143.

Баіці, Элізабэт. “Археаастраномія і этнаастраномія да гэтага часу [and Comments and Reply]”Цяперашняя антрапалогія. 14. № 4 (1973): 389-449.

Брыкер, Харві і Вікторыя Брыкер. “Астранамічная арыентацыя стэнда на небе ў Копане”. Часопіс палявой археалогіі. 26. не. 4 (1999): 435-442.

Carrasco, Davíd. “Зорныя збіральнікі і дрыготкі сонца: астральны сімвалізм у традыцыі ацтэкаў”. Гісторыя рэлігій. 26. не. 3 (1987): 279-294.

Ягня, Уэлдон. “Сонца, Месяц і Венера на Уксмале”. Амерыканская антычнасць. 45. не. 1 (1980): 79-86.


The value of fashion

A new month is coming and last month’s wardrobe is becoming useless and outdated, no problem, you can experience new market trends that go perfectly with your taste. Aside from the typical stripes we’re used to, you can try something different, add matching skinny scarves, and your outfit will be fabulous. In cold weather, the designer has developed a collection of clothes that match nature. In addition to helping you express yourself and reveal your unique insides, fashion also makes you comfortable, life-changing, showcases some creativity.

Also, it is through fashion that we inform people, the way we dress tells more about us, the reaction to style depends on the message associated with your choice of clothing. Information can be acceptable or outcast to the outside world, especially about those with personal identities, celebrities, politicians, preachers, and younger generations. Fashion is also an expression of social, cultural and religious values. Fashion is an art, like architecture, which gives its development the form and design he / she wants, just like fashion. This means that clothing is a non-verbal form of communication. Fashion also affects a person’s perception, for example, when someone wears a suit, it is more organized and comfortable, and in turn the suit changes that person’s gestures and the way he speaks. Or when someone wears jeans and T-shirts, it is perceived that such a person is weak and liberal.

Fashion – a demonstration of creativity; we assume someone’s creativity depending on the type of clothing he wears more often. But you need to wonder how fashion enhances someone’s creativity, but, for example, when we wear clothes, do we consider several factors, one of which is that the dress matches the events we attend? Or we would also like to dress up to look like a certain celebrity or a loved one we know. So we can say that if we can be creative in our clothes, we can also be creative in all areas of life, including school and music. The fact is that people are very excited when they do something new in their work, and they become successful when they wear a fabric that no one has worn before and people appreciate that you start to have confidence in your work.

Another fascinating thing in this fashion is that it is important in religions and cultures, for example, Muslim ladies have a unique way where they cover their faces. This is perceived as fashion because the dress is worn as intended. Therefore, it can be said that when people wear clothes out of their beliefs, it can strengthen their faith as fashion reminds them of their religion. And also shows children that it is vital to be unique from others.


Character of Indian crafts

The panoramic view of Indian crafts is a patchwork quilt of many shades and shades of meaning that reflects the interaction with social, economic, cultural and religious forces. The world of artisans is full of contrasts, all kinds of useful products and sacred items, items for ritual use and ephemeral festival crafts, which represent many levels of improvement – from the simplest to the most technically advanced. In addition, there are many perceptions of the term “artisan” ranging from manual worker to high artistic skill. The craft is then in a complex environment, a dense matrix of many threads and elements.

Stories unfold in the material with skillful mastery of tools and the use of intelligence and the work – a mirror of the society that produces it. No wonder we see traces and signs of culture frozen in stone or clay and metal and wood, and all this resonates with the roots of a particular cultural system that produces or uses the object of crafts. The belief systems that define this form could have originated from a religious source or from some body of ancient folk wisdom.

As someone rightly said, crafts are a true reflection of creativity, closeness to nature, business trip thought patterns, clarity of the right mix to turn a piece of wood or a piece of brass or something else to make a masterpiece.

Thus, the huge terracotta horses of Ayanar stand as vigilant village guards in Tamil Nadu. The temple, mosque, church and tribal gods have contributed to the formation of cult artifacts and vows that are part of the rites of passage in many communities of India. Birth and death, marriage and youth are all joys or sorrows for society, and they create a context for the release of creative energy and the demand for the highest degree of mastery that a craftsman can bring.

There are many expressions: some refined with decorative motifs and surface ornamentation, in others – a primordial sense of peace with a material and sublime proportion that evokes soft feelings, even if the object is made of metal, as in the massive cast glass of a ship from Kerala. The simplicity of Jain surface wood, utensils, and intricate and decorated meenokari, enameled metal products from the Islamic north stand out in stark contrast, each reflecting the ethos of the community and the purpose it serves. In the hills of Nagaland, baskets, hats and other accessories of the carrier tell about his worldview and identity.

India has been at the crossroads of civilization for over 5,000 years. Various waves of interactions from the Northwest and subtle trade interactions from the South and East have brought new ideas and practices, skills and applications. Internal migration and trade operations have borrowed skills from one place and planted them in new and foreign conditions. For example, the textile texture of bandhani in Gujarat finds new expression in the sungads of distant Madurai. The arrival of the Mughals brought exquisite Iranian art in weaving from metal, silk and carpets. The arrival of the British and Portuguese in South India introduced the carved wooden traditions of the West. In addition, the hot humid climate has caused a clever design of the shaded verandas of Pondicherry, coastal Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

Indian crafts are a treasure trove of classical motifs and patterns that have evolved over the centuries, many of which have been passed down from commercial cultures during epochs of interaction. Once upon a time, motifs and patterns absorbed by culture spread in different environments: from stone to wood, from metal to fabric; from weaving to printing and from painting to inlay; each technique brings to the sample its own unique signature, amalgam material and restriction tools. In floral motifs and vines, belts can be found with as many expressions as materials and contexts, like kerry or aam, stylized mango.

The human form has also been depicted in large numbers. The rough and finished broken forms of the Naga warrior contrast sharply with the elegant bronze statuettes of Chola, while the wrought iron tribesman from Chhattisgarh differs from the expressive professional toys from Kandapalli in Andhra Pradesh.

Several crafts are a form of clean service, and the artisan plays the role of behaving critical functions in shape and shape repair. Urine or shoemaker and potter, tile maker and carpenter fall into the category of those who work to serve society with their skills and knowledge. In an era of mass consumption, it may be a good idea to return some of the value of this service to ensure that our products are recycled and recovered rather than used and discarded long before their active life expires. Craft and skill use can bring new values ​​for a sustainable future and a new attitude towards the proper use and abuse of materials in the years to come.

Traditional and modern conditions exist to showcase craft heritage across India. The bazaar is closest to the manufacturer, while new forms of exhibitions and fairs promoted by the government and NGOs represent new formats of modern action. Craft heritage continues to evolve in modern times, and items also find new and modern expression, while old and traditional are still valued for the sophistication they represent. That crafts understand and respond to the variety demanded by their customers can be seen in the abundance of jewelry, clothing, footwear and handmade accessories used in our everyday costume. Kolhapuri, leather shoes, is one such product. The paintings of Worley and Madhubani are two notable examples of everyday art that is part of the living culture of the earth.

In the changing context of a global market economy and ideology, traditional crafts offer sustainable practices that need to be reconsidered and implemented. The development of crafts requires a paradigm shift from the advancement of the corrector, the traditional master, to the quality of craftsmanship, the correction, for he who admires this quality will become a master for eternity.


Architectural styles of Santa Cruz

The California architectural styles of Santa Cruz have become historic icons that the area proudly preserves with great care. There were many eras that left an inseparable mark in buildings, homes and buildings around the city. The bit of fragrance of all eras remains as an indisputable element of the city’s long and varied history.

Santa Cruz, California, was created largely for the sake of the Franciscan Mission and the Spanish Garrison. The mission was built in 1791, and the garrison was erected in 1793. The Franciscan mission has been relocated to the Mission Hill area, where it is still located due to flooding problems besieged by the San Lorenzo River. The founders of the mission built it in the Baroque style, as they used to. It was built with a plane as a central hearth that forms almost a triplex around the square. The style portends those observed in Mexico and Spain. The mission consists mainly of flexible construction with deep walls in the interior. This simplified design was adopted through the use of Indian workers who did not have extensive knowledge of construction. Decorative bell towers and deep piers surround the building to this day.

Some of the earliest structures erected throughout Santa Cruz were built at home in a decorative, rectangular shape. Wooden boards were used to tie these main houses of the district. They have been very popular in the pioneer era since the 1850s. On Silvar Street there is still a house of this period of time, which is an example of an architectural era.

From 1850 to 1890, houses and office buildings underwent many transitions, and Santa Cruz’s architectural styles evolved, marking different periods of style, such as the Greek renaissance, the Gothic renaissance, the Italian regiment, Eastlake, the Romanesque, Queen Anne, the colonial renaissance, and shingles. The Greek Renaissance house reflected all American taste in construction. Although the design had large pillars similar to Greek stacking, and large porches this style could be seen throughout the country in the era. During the Gothic Renaissance, churches and buildings with very sharp edges and interesting details similar to Gothic buildings in Europe were presented. The Italian period boasted large buildings with large windows and covered porches in front. This style testified to the Renaissance in Italy. Both in the styles of Stick houses and in Eastlake on the street there were large windows and porches or verandas.

Romanesque structures were quite popular for business. The miniature columns located along the rock fronts are the strong characteristics of these buildings. Queen Anne is a very beautiful Victorian structure. Houses in this style were exhibited from the towers on the side of the houses with decorative chimneys and an overall refined look. The colonial revival yielded buildings and houses that had much in common with American houses of the Revolution. American pride was revived when they pushed west, gaining more and more territory, and a tendency to imitate the past American style developed. The style of shingles in many ways resembles its name: houses with low ringworm to build the look of the house, not the siding. These houses were still very large in appearance but understated in the style of appearance, and all testify to the architectural styles of Santa Cruz.

In order for a house or building to be of historic significance in the Santa Cruz area, it must typically be at least fifty years old. This meets the requirements of the National Registry, despite the fact that the California State Register does not explicitly state. However, there are exceptions, and when historical figures, major historical events, religious buildings or cemeteries are born, sometimes a building can be considered historic that has not yet reached the age of fifty.


The symbolism of the statues

Statues and sculptures have existed for a long time and perform many different roles. Some people portray them as a way of commemoration, while others show sculptures as a way of worship. Some people find comfort and healing in their form. Whatever the reason, statues have and continue to play a big role in the lives of people around the world.

Symbolism Sculptures have a symbolic meaning. For example, the Statue of Liberty represents / acts as a symbol of freedom and independence for Americans. For others, pig statues and pig figurines (especially gold ones) symbolize the pursuit of wealth and the pursuit of economic benefits and well-being. These representations can and do have many different symbolic meanings.

Worship We read in the Bible and other historical documents that replicas of people and symbols were and are used as a form of worship. All over the world there are many religions that use statues in their religious cults. For example, Buddhists use the Buddha to help them remember that everything comes from the Buddha, and by worshiping the Buddha, they can achieve and get the things they really want. Religious statues are becoming more and more common.

Memory Often sculptures are placed on monuments and tombstones in memory of a person who has passed away. One of the most common statues used for remembrance (and often for worship) is the statue of Jesus Christ. Christians seek to display statues of Jesus Christ in temples and in their homes. It serves as a constant reminder of what Jesus Christ did for them and of the love He has for them.

Healing statues are often given to people who are ill or have serious illnesses. Statues can bring peace and comfort as well as healing to those who are ill. Religious statues are often given to those who are ill. Many people believe and gain strength and healing from statues (both religious and non-religious statues).

Statues are a great asset that can be added to any home or building. Some of the most popular statues displayed in homes and public buildings are: Buddha, Virgin Mary, Christ, Batleyka and Willow. It doesn’t matter where you go. Statues are everywhere and part of everyday life.


Llerena – Hidden in Extremadura

After its conquest by Christian troops of Fernando III, around 1240, the Moorish city of Elerina was renamed the city of Lerena. The city soon became the headquarters of the Order of St. Jacob the Sword, often referred to as the Order of Santiago. The High Court and the Treasury of the Order of Santiago moved to Lleren, and in 1493 the last Grand Master of the Order of Santiago, Alfonso de Cardenas, died and was placed in the Iral Parish de Santiago. The Order was originally accused of relocating territory ravaged by war with Muslims, and in the late 15th century their efforts resulted in a population of 3,300 and a thriving agrarian community compared to just over 3,000 today.

Meanwhile, in 1478, Lleren also became the main center of Santo Ofifio, or the Inquisition. One of the famous sons of the Inquisition, Inquisitor Pedro Alvarez de Paredes, became famous for his ability to demand confessions and falsify evidence, and for the fact that the accused proclaimed false decisions of the Tribunal: “You will be released if you confess.” He was transferred to Evora in 1541 to hone his talents on Portuguese heretics. The Inquisition maintained a presence in Lleren until the city was occupied by Napoleon’s troops in the early 19th century.

Not surprisingly, Llerena is a deeply religious city with four large churches and one monastery serving a reduced population. Most of the impetus for the construction of these buildings came from the knights. Such influence of the Mujahideen imagined that cult buildings as well as other monuments such as the courtyard of the High Inquisition, the palace of the bishop, Casas Mastrales, the house of the great masters of the Order of Santiago and the city of Hall and Palacio de Luis Zapata, overlooking the magnificent space Master of the Plaza, it all combines elements of Mudejar with the newly arrived Gothic fashion of Extremadura. The result was an unusual combination of wooden roofs with exposed masonry, fixed on pointed arches, vaults of fire and stone ashlars with ornate balconies and windows.

Unlike Cáceres in the north of Extremadura, who managed to preserve the Renaissance and Merida in central Extremadura with a Roman heritage, Lleren still looks outward, apart from the proliferation of cars, the town of the Middle Ages, full of gloomy, dark, beautiful caused the grim presence of the Inquisition and intensified now along the narrow, shaded streets and, over a long period of siesta, real estate that is not often the case in the city. It is impossible to say that the residents feel that way. On the contrary, they like strangers. A visit to the tourist information office, located in the Palazzo de Donna Mariana, a beautiful example of architecture typical of the city, shows both the architectural style with a decorated courtyard, columns, porticos, and interior wood paneling, as well as attitude of the people. The charming young lady apologized for not practicing English very often, and then prepared information about the city, the surrounding area and the province, all in perfect English.

To truly feel like a town, you can safely wander the streets. You sometimes go out in small squares with the inevitable church, and sometimes at one of the two surviving gates through the city walls, Puerto de Montemalin in 1577 with a fresco of the Conception of Inmaculada or earlier Moorish, Puerto de Villagarsia with its wide stairs. leading to the main entrance for formal ceremonies, with a smaller arch to one side and a “z” entrance built to deter unwanted visitors. Dark stripes, as soon as the eyes get used to the darkness, provide liquid refreshment and bowls of locally cooked full, sweet, pickled olives.

Relief from the sun can be found in Plaza Mayor. On two sides the colonnade walk, built in the 15th century, provides a deep shadow, immersed in what was the aforementioned Palacio de Luis Zapata, a pair of bars that also serve food, but only when the sun has set after 20.30 pm.

Having studied the city itself, which has no evidence of any history before the Moors, it was time to look for the Romans. A trip from Llerena by sign for the Roman ruins to Fuente del Arco. You will soon leave the city behind and appear straight into agriculture. After 8 kilometers you will reach the junction to Fuente del Arco, ignore it, continue, do not follow the signs for the ruins, you will be on the streets hopelessly confused. Another kilometer is a good junction with the road to your left, which goes another kilometer to the ruins with signposts. This huge site has not yet been excavated. We know that this is a potentially huge venue because the only building that houses the theater will house 1,000 people, and the Romans sought to build their own theaters to serve a third of the population in a single performance. In size, though not in decorativeness, it rivals that of Merida. It is likely that this is the site of a Roman settlement known as Regina, and that within three hundred years between the departing and arriving Moors, the center of the population moved 8 miles on the road to a faster hamlet, which the Moors then called Elerina. There are indications that the low hill on which Lleren sits was once a fortified Iron Age settlement. In any case, the location of Regina does indicate that the Romans felt unrestrained here, as it is located on a fairly flat plain with a high, in Roman times, unprotected ridge behind.

On this ridge, overlooking the Roman site, is another Moorish hill with an interesting fortification on top of the village of Rhine. Unlike Llerena, this tiny village, clogged with a small gap under the castle, has not changed since the time of Mauritius. Contact the tourist office in Lleren for the duration of the castle. In March 2009, it was closed for major repairs. Finally, a few more miles along the road is the abandoned iron mine of Mina de la Hayona. Iron ore was mined from this mine before the arrival of the Romans and they quickly realized its importance. Worked continuously until the 20th century, the mines are now a national monument and open to visitors. Excursions are conducted and organized through the tourist office in Lleren. Tel. 924 870 551.

The rural path to Llerena creates a confused anticipation of the future. Leave a recently completed car called the “Autovia de la Plata” that takes you from Seville to Merida, a few miles to Monesterio, at the junction indicating Palar. Go to Palare and then follow the signs of Lleren. The winding road will take you through the fertile valleys, which were first cultivated during the Roman and Mauritian occupation, and then at the will of the Santiago knights. Plump merino sheep and dark gray Iberian pigs quietly dedicate themselves among the fruit trees. Fields burst with vegetables of all kinds. A rough hunting country divides the valleys. In these areas, game birds explode from roadside vegetation and disappear into the thickets. There are pheasant and grouse and, a culinary delight if available, red partridge. On the hills, crops and domesticated animals in the valleys there is so much play that you think there is a place here, hopefully where food is important and lovingly ready to extract every last piece of fun. And it proves it. The Mirador’s restaurant has a menu filled with local delicacies, juicy lamb, crispy piglets and plump partridge cooked with sage, as well as sweet pastries made at the convent nearby. If your dinner is not to your liking, leave the car in Zafra and take the direct Roman road southeast to Llerena.


Niverna is a house of beautiful landscapes and interesting culture

Thinking of places that are perfect for a boat trip on the canal, you may find it difficult to come up with a destination that is more perfect than the French region of Niverny, which is great for exploring by boat.

Holidays on the canal in France annually attract many tourists from the UK, who are attracted to the country by the promise of quaint villages, interesting culture and of course delicious wine and food.

However, not only these reasons make vacation on boats in France popular, because the picturesque village in the country also tempts many people to relax. And the Niverna region is definitely one of the most beautiful that can be found in France.

In Niverna lives the winding canal Ca Nivernais – a popular choice for people to relax by boat, and the waterway that runs through some of the best places to visit France. The region also has a number of famous grape varieties and a wide variety of communities filled with history, all of which can be explored on the canal here.

A visit to the medieval city of Claemis should be at the top of your list when you travel to Nivernai on a boat trip this year. The city is especially known for its magnificent architecture and also has a number of beautiful churches and other religious buildings that are part of the rich past of the area.

Cultural sculptors will also not be disappointed with a visit to Clemiti, as the art gallery has fairly light art galleries and museums that allow you to have fun while traveling to the city.

The canal, along which you will sail on a water holiday to the region of Nivern in France, was originally built to connect a number of industrial hubs of France and, as such, runs through various places worth visiting.

Just like Clamecy, you can take a vacation by boat to visit the Tannes, Corbini, Vermenton and Coulanges, which have a real French charm and offer their own sights and attractions.

Lovers of traditional French buildings may want to visit the city of Auxerre, which is easily accessible on a boat trip down the canal down the Canal du Nivern. The most famous building in Auxerre is the Gothic cathedral, which definitely follows a photograph of the two and is a fine example of the architecture of the time.

If you, seeing a Gothic church in Auxerre, made you get acquainted with some of the most beautiful buildings in France, then make sure you direct the boat to the canal to the city of Sense.

Sense also has a huge church built in the Gothic style, as well as many other architecturally interesting buildings. Further along the river you will be able to visit the settlements of Chitry-les-Mines and Chatillon-en-Bazois, which are home to some incredibly beautiful French castle, which is definitely a must visit while traveling to this part of France.

Traveling along the canal du Nivern, you may find that you catch a wide range of wildlife and birds. The canal itself is actually known for its biodiversity, and you’ll be able to see bird species including films, beautiful crabs, herons, kites and kites if you enjoy a boat trip in the region.

If you want to include as many visits to French cities on a boat trip, you can stay in the town of Bayeux, which is at the very end of the canal. This community can appeal to those who enjoy outdoor activities, as it is known for the wide variety of water sports it offers to visitors.

Shopping enthusiasts who want to return home with lots of souvenirs to remind themselves of their holiday in France may want to stop their boat on the canal in the towns of Florentine and Vilnius-sur-Yon.

Both of these cities hold markets regularly and can be ideal for those who want to use their holiday as an opportunity to stock up on wine and cheese, which marks the Niverian region.


The birth of art is the new stone (Neolithic) age

The Neolithic or New Stone Age began in human time technologically and socially, a much more advanced era than previous years. This period marked the dawn of civilization, when people began to choose settlements during their wanderings. The manors of this time included huts made of mud, straw or brick, which together formed permanent villages. The Neolithic era also witnessed the domestication of animals, the emergence of sophisticated tools for fishing and hunting, and the development of agriculture and pottery. Religious, architectural and artistic pursuits have become an integral part of the lifestyle.

Various arts, such as weaving, architecture, megaliths and stylized icons, appeared only during the New Stone Age. The statue, paintings and pottery, taken from the Mesolithic era, underwent significant transformations. In Western Europe, bubbles (large stone blocks) began to be used to demarcate the boundaries between two tribal institutions, arenas of sacrifice, or places of worship. The artistic inclinations of people in the Neolithic era testify to how these menhirs were decorated using a variety of geometric shapes similar to squares, rhombuses and circles, as well as the shapes of zigzag rays carved on the sides.

In the statuettes of the New Stone Age was mainly the “Mother Goddess”, as can be seen from the earliest traces of human figures discovered during archaeological excavations. The pottery used during this period also demonstrates the artistic abilities of the people. These artifacts were adorned with bright colors including red, brown and yellow. The paintings were now visible on the walls of home institutions, which were mainly used for decorative purposes. The earliest landscapes in the world of painting also appeared from the New Stone Age.

Artistic expressions developed in tandem with the demands of the people. For example, architecture has evolved with increasing demand for permanent housing and places of worship. Similarly, wooden products and pottery are designed to meet the needs of furniture and utensils. One of the architectural wonders of the Neolithic era was the use of megaliths, the most famous example of which is England’s Stonehenge. The oldest known megalithic temple is Gqantija on the island of Gozo. Neolithic paintings and other arts have been excellent tools in the study of human evolution because they constitute a crucial link between early man and his environment, the level of development in that era, cultural practices and religious beliefs. In fact the art of this period laid the foundation for all further art forms.

Another interesting characteristic of Neolithic artistry is the discovery of such powerful animals as Bison and Auroch, which people were afraid to hunt because of the great threat they posed. The vertical arrangement of animals on poles and in other works of art symbolizes the sedentary lifestyle of this era. The importance of the hierarchical relationship between humans and spirits in these artifacts is depicted along vertical axes. It is also important in that he proved that long before man began to cultivate, he began the mental subjugation of animals and established superiority over them. Therefore, Neolithic art serves as a guiding point for understanding the years of human history and evolution.


Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara and Taj Mahal

Indian was quite often conceived as a means of religious expression. Both Buddhism and Islam are common religions in India, and because of this it is common to find art that represents both religions. I am especially fond of sculptural works of Indian art. The Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva is an example of Indian sculpture derived from the Buddhist religion, and the Taj Mahal is an example of Indian architecture that comes mostly from the Islamic tradition. These two parts differ dramatically in size and scale, however the shapes have much in common.

The Taj Mahal is located in Agra, India. It was established during the Mughal period during the reign of Shah Jahan. It was built around 1632-1648., It is located on the banks of the Yamuna River, located on the north side of India. It was originally created to become a mausoleum for Shah Jahan’s wife, who ruled from 1628 to 1658.

To get to the TaJ Mahal, you will first come to a huge gate in the complex. When you enter the gate, the tomb stands in front of the spectator. There is a large garden and a reflective pool. The garden is 1,000 feet by 1,900 feet and it is divided into four sections, each filled with plantings of trees and flowers. Around each garden there are paths removed from the inlaid stone that forms the geometric patterns.

When the Taj Mahal was first built, the paths were lined with fruit trees and cypresses, which were supposed to symbolize life and death. There were also fountains in the shallow pools. Court musicians would fill the space, making it a very magical space.

At the back of the garden is a tomb. On the sides of the tomb is a mosque and a building that looks identical to the mosque and is used as a lounge. Both of these buildings sit on the same base as the tomb and seem to visually balance the mass of the tomb itself. The buildings themselves consist mainly of red sandstone. On the other hand, the large central tomb consists of white marble that really shines next to the red sandstone buildings that line it.

The tomb sits on its own base. As in the tomb, the base of the tomb is made of white marble. The entire tomb building is raised higher than other buildings on its marble platform. In each corner of the surrounding Taj Mahal there are four minarets that look like slender towers. Three different levels of minarets correspond to the tombs, symbolically creating a connection between them.

At the top of each minaret sits a tent or pavilion. In traditional Indian palaces Chattri were a common architectural feature. Chatters have their roots in the Islamic religion. Minarets also originate from the Islamic tradition. They were to be of such great height that they compelled all Islamic people to call for prayer. The general structure of the Taj Mahal is very curvilinear and has a certain smoothness. Another work of Indian art that mimics the curvilinear lines of the Taj Mahal is the Avalokiteshvara Bodhisattva.

The Avalokiteshvara Bodhisattva is originally from Kurkihar, Bihar, Central India. This is a work from the late Middle Ages. Originates from the Paul dynasty in the 12th century AD. It is made of gilded bronze and sits about 10 inches high. It is currently housed in the Patna Museum in Patras.

A bodhisattva is a person who has advanced on the path to enlightenment in the beliefs of Buddhism. The goal of the Madhana Buddhists was to help all those they encountered to reach the path to enlightenment. Avalokitesvara is a bodhisattva of the greatest compassion. Avolokiteshvara promised to abandon construction until everyone else became a Buddhist. Because of this he was one of the most populous bodhisattvas.

In the statue of Avolakiteshvara he is depicted in his princely garb, not dressed as a Buddha, who is always depicted in an ordinary monastic mantle. Avakalokiteshvara is recognized specifically for the lotus flower he holds and for the crown of his father’s Buddha. The parent Buddha Avolakitesvara is the Buddha Amitabha of the Western Pure Land, which was a Buddhist version of paradise.

Avolokiteshvara is also depicted with three eyes, which means to say that he had the opportunity to see in miraculous ways. In the pose that Avolakiteshvara assumes in this statue, he is depicted in a casual pose known as a royal pose. One leg is slightly extended and directed downwards, and the other leg is folded at the knees and rests on the lotus seat, which is considered an emblem of spiritual purity. His torso creates a curved fluid, and his arms are slightly bent and also have a certain smoothness.

Both the Avalokiteshvara Bodhisattva and the Taj Mahal are examples of Indian sculptures. The Avalokiteshvara Bodhisattva is a Buddhist statue, and the Taj Mahal is an Islamic tomb. Despite this, these details have a lot in common in how the lines of the piece are processed.


Taunton – A true English language experience

Religious and military upheavals always determined the state of the nation, and England was no different. The English Empire once boasted of dominating half the world, but despite this interweaving of countless cultures, the English way of life has withstood the test of time. “Genuine” England is preserved in many counties, and there is no better place to begin to absorb the history of England than Taunton, which preserves the oldest traditions in its bosom, happily welcoming the 21st century with open arms.

This magical county got its name from “City on the Ton River”. The name Taunton became the corrupt abbreviated name “Tone Town”. The structural history of this city is as old as the history itself, as it was an important site during Saxon rule around 700 AD, and over the next few centuries the city changed hands and rulers quite frequently. Fantastic Castle Taunton was built around 1107 AD. in the traditional Norman style, although it slowly went into disrepair and finally received the necessary repairs during the civil war in the 17th century. This quiet county in the bosom of nature also witnessed some bloody battles and skirmishes in the 15th century, although precautions were taken during World War II when it served as a stop in the event of German aggression, and several boards are still scattered. everywhere.

Mainly because of these turbulent times Taunton fell into disrepair and demanded proper attention from the authorities. It was subsequently declared a “Strategically Important City” and received sufficient funds for various revival projects to maintain the city as one of the major centers of business and culture. These efforts were not in vain, and Taunton became the center of domestic and international tourism in the southwest.

If a magical story just isn’t a motivation for you to visit, how about architecture? Taunton is home to many iconic monuments that are magnificent examples of architecture at the most dizzying heights. Mary Street Chapel and St. James’s Church are just two of the many ornate buildings that boast intricate wood and stonework that are sure to leave every visitor with great caution. For sports fans in the city there are many clubs and teams for various sports and spectacular matches in football, cricket, basketball, etc., which take place every day. Need a break from the hectic tour schedules – then head to any of the public areas and parks in and around Taunton, including the Goodlands Park, Vivari Park and Victoria Park. The most famous is Victoria Park, which in good condition has fountains and architecture in the early 20th century. Thousands of species of flowers, trees, birds and squirrels add a relaxing and already comforting experience.

Taunton may not be as popular as some other tourist destinations in England, but rest assured – if you visit the city, you’ll never forget its incredibly long history and the rustic charm it exhibits.