Music is an art form that includes organized and audible sounds and silence. This is usually expressed through pitch (which includes melody and harmony), rhythm (which includes tempo and meter) and sound quality (which includes timbre, articulation, dynamics and texture). Music can also incorporate complex generative forms over time by constructing patterns and combinations of natural stimuli, mostly sound. Music can be used for artistic or aesthetic, communicative, entertainment or ritual purposes. The definition of what constitutes music varies according to culture and social context.
If painting can be seen as a visual art form, music as an auditory art form.
Allegory of Music, Philippines Lippi
Allegory of music, Lorenzo Lippi
4 Production 4.1 Performance
4.2 Solo and ensemble
4.3 Oral tradition and notation
4.4 Improvisation, interpretation, composition
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Main article: Definition of music
See also: Music genre
The broadest definition of music is organized sound. There are regularities in general music, and although there are clear cultural variations, the properties of music are the properties of sound that are perceived and processed by humans and animals (birds and insects also create music).
Music is a formulated or organized sound. Although it may not contain emotions, it is sometimes designed to manipulate and transform the listener / listeners ’emotions. Music created for movies is a good example of its use to manipulate emotions.
Greek philosophers and theorists of the Middle Ages defined music as tones arranged horizontally as melodies and vertically as harmonies. Music theory in this area is studied with the view that music is orderly and often pleasing to the senses. However, in the twentieth century, composers challenged the notion that music should be enjoyable, creating music that explores tougher and darker timbres. The existence of some modern genres, such as grindcore and noise music, which enjoy a wide underground, suggests that even the roughest noises can be considered music if the listener is so prone.
20th-century composer John Cage disagreed with the view that music should consist of pleasant, conspicuous melodies, and he challenged the view that it could communicate anything. Instead, he argued that any sounds we can hear could be music, saying, for example, “No noise, only sound.”. According to musicologist Jean-Jacques Nates (1990, pp. 47-8, 55): “The line between music and noise is always culturally defined – this means that even within one society, this line does not always pass through the same place; in short, consensus is rare …. By all accounts, there is no single and intercultural universal concept that defines what music can be. “
Johann Wolfgang Goethe believed that patterns and forms were the basis of music; he stated that “architecture is frozen music.”
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Main article: History of music
See also: Music and Politics
Figurines on stringed instruments, excavated in Susa, 3rd millennium BC. National Museum of Iran.
The history of music precedes the written word and is linked to the development of each unique human culture. Although the earliest records of musical expression can be found in India’s Veda itself and in the 4,000-year-old cuneiform from Ur, most of our written records and research relate to the history of music of Western civilization. These include musical periods such as the Middle Ages, Renaissance, Baroque, Classical, Romantic and the twentieth century. The history of music in other cultures has also been documented to some extent, and knowledge of “world music” (or the field of “ethnomusicology”) is becoming more and more in demand in academia. These include documented classical traditions of Asian countries outside the influence of Western Europe, as well as folk or local music of different cultures. (The term world music was applied to a wide range of music made outside Europe and European influence, although the original use in the context of the World Music Program at the University of Weslin was a term that included all possible musical genres, including European traditions. In academia. (The original term for the study of world music, “comparative musicology,” was replaced in the mid-twentieth century by “ethnomusicology,” which some still consider an unsatisfactory coin.)
Popular musical styles varied greatly from culture to culture and from period to period. Different cultures emphasized different instruments or techniques or ways of using music. Music was used not only for entertainment, ceremonies and practical and artistic communication, but also widely propagandistic.
As world cultures have come into greater contact, their indigenous musical styles often merge into new styles. For example, the bluegrass style in the U.S. contains elements of Anglo-Irish, Scottish, Irish, German, and some African-American instrumental and vocal traditions that have been able to merge in the multinational U.S. “melting pot” society.
There are many classifications of music, many of which are involved in the debate over the definition of music. Among the largest of these is the division between classical music (or “artistic” music) and popular music (or commercial music – including rock ‘n’ roll, country, and pop music). Some genres do not fit into one of these “big two” classifications (e.g., folk music, world music, or jazz).
Genres of music are determined by both tradition and presentation, and real music. While most classical music is acoustic and intended to be performed by individuals or groups, many works that are described as “classical” include samples of either tape or are mechanical. Some works, such as Gershwin’s Rhapsody in Blue, are claimed by both jazz and classical music. Many modern music festivals celebrate a certain musical genre.
Disagreements often arise as to what constitutes “real” music: late Beethoven string quartets, Balinski Stravinsky’s scores, serialism, bebop jazz, rap, punk rock, and electronics – some critics considered non-music when they were first introduced.
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Main article: Aspects of music
The traditional or classical European aspects of music that are often listed are the elements that give precedence in classical music under the influence of Europe: melody, harmony, rhythm, color tone or timbre and form. A more complete list is given with aspects of sound: pitch, timbre, volume and duration. These aspects combine and create secondary aspects including structure, texture and style. Other commonly included aspects include the spatial arrangement or movement in space of sounds, gestures, and dances. Silence has long been considered an aspect of music, ranging from dramatic pauses in the symphonies of the Romantic era to the avant-garde use of silence as an artistic expression in 20th century works such as John Cage 4’33. “John Cage considers duration to be the primary aspect of music because it is the only aspect common to both‘ sound ’and‘ silence ’.
As mentioned above, not only the aspects that make up music change, but also their significance. For example, melodies and harmonies are often considered more important in classical music due to rhythm and timbre. It is often debated whether there are aspects in music that are universal. Discussion often depends on definitions. For example, the fairly common claim that “tonality” is universal for all music requires a broad definition of tonality.
Impulse is sometimes taken as universal, but there are solo vocal and instrumental genres with free improvisational rhythms without a regular pulse; one example is the alapian section of the industani musical performance. According to Dane Harwood, “we need to ask whether it is possible to find an intercultural musical universal in music itself (either its structure or function) or the way music is created.” By making music “I’m not only going to the actual performance, but also the way the music is heard, understood and even studied.” 
Main article: Music industry
Music is composed and performed for a variety of purposes, ranging from aesthetic pleasures, religious or ritual purposes or as an entertainment product for the market. Amateur musicians compose and perform music for their own enjoyment, and they don’t try to make a profit from music. Professional musicians work in a number of institutions and organizations, including the armed forces, churches and synagogues, symphony orchestras, broadcasters and music schools. In addition, professional musicians work as freelancers, looking for contracts and participations in a variety of settings.
Although amateur musicians differ from professional musicians in that amateur musicians have a non-musical source of income, there are often many connections between amateur musicians and professionals. Beginner amateur musicians take lessons from professional musicians. In public, advanced amateur musicians perform with professional musicians in various ensembles and orchestras. In some rare cases, amateur musicians reach a professional level of competence and they can perform in a professional performance setting.
A distinction is often made between music performed for the benefit of a live audience and music performed for the purpose of recording and distribution through a music retail system or a broadcasting system. However, there are also many cases where a live performance in front of an audience is recorded and disseminated (or broadcast).
Main article: Performance
Chinese musicians Naxi
He who performs, composes or conducts music is music. Musicians perform music for a variety of reasons. Some performers express their feelings in music. Performing music is a pleasant activity for amateur and professional musicians, and it is often done for the benefit of the public, which derives some aesthetic, social, religious or ritual significance. Part of the motivation of professional performers is that they make a profit from making music. It’s not just income motivation, but music has become a part of life as well as society. Allowing to motivate a person and through one’s own motivation, as they say, “for the love of music”. In addition, music is performed in the context of practice as a way to develop musical skills.
 Solo and ensemble
Many cultures incorporate strong traditions of solo or solo performance, for example, in classical Indian music and in the traditions of Western art music. Other cultures, such as in Bali, include strong traditions of group performances. All cultures include a mixture of both, and performance can range from impromptu solo playing for fun to highly planned and organized performance rituals such as a modern classical concert or religious processions.
Chamber music, which is music for a small ensemble in which no more than one instrument of each type, is often seen as more intimate than symphonic works. A performer is called a musician or a singer, and they can be part of a musical ensemble, such as a rock band or a symphony orchestra.
 Oral tradition and notation
Main article: Sheet music
Music is often stored in memory and performance, transmitted orally or by ear (“by ear”). When a music composer is no longer known, this music is often classified as “traditional”. Different musical traditions relate differently to how and where changes are made to the source material, from fairly rigorous to those that require improvisation or modification of the music. In The Gambia, West Africa, the history of the country is heard through songs.
When music is recorded, it is usually recorded so that there are instructions as to what the listeners should listen to and what the music should do to perform the music. This is called musical notation, and the study of how to read a notation includes music theory, harmony, the study of performance practice, and in some cases an understanding of historical performance techniques.
Written notations vary depending on the style and period of the music. In Western Art music, the most common types of written note are scores, which include all the musical parts of the ensemble and the parts that are the musical notation of individual performers or singers. In popular music, jazz and blues, the standard musical notation is the leader, who notes the melody, chords, lyrics (if it is a vocal work) and the structure of the music. However, scores and parts are also used in popular music and jazz, especially in large ensembles such as jazz “large groups”.
In popular music, guitarists and electric bassists often read music marked with a table showing the location of the notes to be played on the instrument, using a guitar or bass fingerboard scheme. Tablature was also used in the Baroque era to note music on a lute, string, fret instrument.
Usually the music to be performed is created as notes. To perform music from a notation requires an understanding of both the musical style and the practice of performance associated with the piece of music or genre. The details included in the musical notation vary between genres and historical periods. In general, the musical notation of artistic music from the seventeenth to the nineteenth century required from performers vast contextual knowledge of performing styles.
For example, in the 17th and 18th centuries, music celebrated for solo performers usually pointed to a simple, unornamented melody. However, it was expected that the performers would know how to add style-appropriate ornaments such as trills and twists.
In the nineteenth century, artistic music for solo performers could give general instructions, such as performing music expressively, without describing in detail how a performer should do it. The performer was expected to know how to use tempo changes, accentuation and pauses (among other devices) to get this “clear” performance style.
In the 20th century, sheet music often became more obvious and used a number of markings and annotations to show performers how they should play or sing a piece. In popular music and jazz, musical notation almost always shows only the basic framework of melody, harmony, or a performance approach; musicians and singers are expected to know the rules of performance and styles associated with certain genres and pieces.
For example, a “lead sheet” of a jazz melody can only indicate a melody and chord changes. Performers of the jazz ensemble are expected to “refine” this basic structure by adding ornaments, improvised music and chordal accompaniment.
 Improvisation, interpretation, composition
Main articles: Musical Composition, Musical Improvisation and Free Improvisation
Most cultures use at least part of the concept of pre-perception of musical material or composition that exists in Western classical music. Even if the music is celebrated accurately, the performer has to make a lot of decisions. The process by which a performer decides how to perform music that was previously composed and celebrated is called interpretation.
Interpretations of the same music by different artists can vary greatly. Composers and songwriters who present their own music interpret, as do those who perform the music of others or folk music. A standard set of options and techniques present at a particular time and place is called a performance practice, where either the individual choice of the performer or an obscure aspect of the music is usually used as an interpretation, and therefore has a “standard” interpretation.
In some musical genres, such as jazz and blues, even more freedom is given to the performer to engage in improvisation on basic melodic, harmonic, or rhythmic frameworks. The greatest freedom is given to the performer in a style of performance called free improvisation, which is material that is spontaneously “thought” (imagined) during performance rather than thought out. According to Georgiana Castescu’s analysis, improvised music usually adheres to stylistic or genre conditions and even “fully composed” includes some freely chosen material (see Pre-composition). A composition does not always mean the use of a notation or the known sole authorship of one person.
Музыку можна таксама вызначыць, апісаўшы “працэс”, які можа ствараць музычныя гукі, прыклады гэтага – ад перазвону ветру да камп’ютэрных праграм, якія выбіраюць гукі. Музыка, якая ўтрымлівае выпадкова абраныя элементы, называецца Алеатарычнай музыкай і часта асацыюецца з Джонам Кейджам і Вітольдам Лутаслаўскім.
Музычная кампазіцыя – гэта тэрмін, які апісвае кампазіцыю музычнага твора. Метады кампазіцыі ў розных кампазітараў вельмі розныя, аднак пры аналізе музыкі ўсе формы – спантанныя, навучаныя альбо непадрыхтаваныя – будуюцца з элементаў, якія складаюць музычны твор. Музыку можна складаць для неаднаразовага выканання альбо можна імправізаваць; складаецца на месцы. Музыка можа выконвацца цалкам па памяці, з пісьмовай сістэмы нотных запісаў альбо з нейкай камбінацыяй абодвух. У вывучэнні кампазіцыі традыцыйна пераважае вывучэнне метадаў і практык заходняй класічнай музыкі, але вызначэнне кампазіцыі досыць шырокае, каб уключыць стыхійна імправізаваныя творы, такія як выканаўцы фры-джаза і афрыканскіх барабаншчыкаў.
Для разумення кампазіцыі твора важна вылучыць яго элементы. Разуменне фармальных элементаў музыкі можа дапамагчы ў расшыфроўцы, як менавіта пабудаваны твор. Універсальны элемент музыкі – гэта тое, як гукі ўзнікаюць у часе, што называецца рытмам музычнага твора.
Калі ў п’есы здаецца, што час змяняецца, ён лічыцца ў рубато, італьянскі выраз, які паказвае, што тэмп п’есы змяняецца ў адпаведнасці з выразным намерам выканаўцы. Нават выпадковае размяшчэнне выпадковых гукаў, якое адбываецца пры музычным мантажы, адбываецца ў нейкі час і, такім чынам, выкарыстоўвае час як музычны элемент.
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Асноўны артыкул: Слух (сэнс).
Канцэрт у Моцартэуме, Зальцбург
Сфера музычнага пазнання ўключае вывучэнне многіх аспектаў музыкі, у тым ліку таго, як яна апрацоўваецца слухачамі.
Музыка адчуваецца людзьмі ў розных сацыяльных умовах: ад самотнасці да наведвання вялікага канцэрта. Музычныя спектаклі прымаюць розныя формы ў розных культурах і сацыяльна-эканамічным асяроддзі. У Еўропе і Паўночнай Амерыцы часта існуе разрыў паміж тыпамі музыкі, якія разглядаюцца як “высокая культура” і “нізкая культура”. Тыпы музыкі “высокай культуры” звычайна ўключаюць заходнюю мастацкую музыку, такую як барока, класіка, рамантык і сучасныя сімфоніі, канцэрты і сольныя творы, якія звычайна гучаць на афіцыйных канцэртах у канцэртных залах і цэрквах, пры гэтым гледачы сядзяць ціха на месцах.
З іншага боку, іншыя віды музыкі, такія як джаз, блюз, соўл і кантры, часта выконваюцца ў барах, начных клубах і тэатрах, дзе гледачы могуць выпіць, патанцаваць і выказаць сваё ўра. Да самага позняга 20-га стагоддзя падзел паміж “высокай” і “нізкай” музычнымі формамі быў шырока прыняты як сапраўднае адрозненне, якое аддзяляе больш якасную і больш дасканалую “мастацкую музыку” ад папулярных стыляў музыкі, якія гучаць у барах і танцавальных залах.
Аднак у 1980-х і 1990-х музыказнаўцы, якія вывучалі гэты ўспрыняты разрыў паміж “высокім” і “нізкім” музычнымі жанрамі, сцвярджалі, што гэта адрозненне не заснавана на музычнай каштоўнасці альбо якасці розных тыпаў музыкі. Хутчэй яны сцвярджалі, што гэта адрозненне ў асноўным грунтуецца на сацыяльна-эканамічным становішчы альбо сацыяльным класе выканаўцаў альбо аўдыторыі розных тыпаў музыкі.
Напрыклад, калі ў гледачоў класічных сімфанічных канцэртаў звычайна даходы вышэй за сярэдні, то ў гледачоў хіп-хоп-канцэртаў у раёне горада даходы могуць быць ніжэй за сярэднія. Нягледзячы на тое, што выканаўцы, аўдыторыя альбо месца, дзе выконваецца не “мастацкая” музыка, могуць мець больш нізкі сацыяльна-эканамічны статус, музыка, якая выконваецца, напрыклад, блюз, хіп-хоп, панк, фанк ці ска, можа быць вельмі складанай і складаны.
Глухія людзі могуць адчуваць музыку, адчуваючы вібрацыі ў сваім целе, працэс, які можна ўзмацніць, калі чалавек трымае рэзанансны, полы прадмет. Вядомым глухім музыкам з’яўляецца кампазітар Людвіг ван Бетховен, які склаў шмат вядомых твораў нават пасля таго, як цалкам страціў слых. Сярод нядаўніх прыкладаў глухіх музыкантаў – Эвелін Глени, высока прызнаны перкусіяніст, які глухнуў з дванаццаці гадоў, і Крыс Бак, скрыпач-віртуоз, які страціў слых.
Дадатковая інфармацыя: псіхаакустыка